[IntOrg] The World Bank and Japan (Ms. Mika Iwasaki) (14th November 2012)

 On 14th November 2012, Ms. Mika Iwasaki, an official from the World Bank, visited Hosei University and delivered a lecture on the World Bank and Japan. First she explained the World Bank Group including IBRD and IDA, and their organization. Second, she explained the organizational transition in terms of its institutional structure and its approach to development. The World Bank was established in 1944 for reconstruction of the war-torn countries after the WWⅡ and the priority development agenda have continuously changed since 1950s. Third she talked about the relationship between Japan and the World Bank. Japan received loans from the World Bank during 1950s and 1960s. Before Japan finished paying back in 1967, Japan started supporting developing countries through IDA, one of the arms of the World Bank. Now Japan is the second largest shareholder of the World Bank. Fourth, its organization reforms such as governance and voice were explained. Finally she showed the operational results from the World Bank’s latest annual report. (Yui Narikawa)


[IntOrg] Brief explanation of Millennium Development Goals and Mid-Term Examination of MDGs (Professor Hasegawa) (7th November 2012)

 On 7th November 2012, Professor Hasegawa briefly explained the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). He delineated the relevance of eight MDG goals; Japan’s contributions and the roles of international organizations to help achieve MDG goals respectively. Then he gave the students a MDGs related homework for submission on December 5th. After that, the mid-term examination about MDGs was held. (Yasuki Uchiyama)


[IntOrg] The UN and Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN (Mr. Kazuhiro Kuno) (10th October 2012)

 On 10th October, 2012, Mr. Kazuhiro Kuno, the director of the UN Planning and Administration Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, gave a lecture on the UN and Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN. First he illustrated the role of the UN and the changes of the UN functions over years. The UN covers almost all global issues in the world as the only comprehensive and universal international organization. Secondly he talked about issues in the 21st century and reform of the UN according to the background of changing realities of international society, including globalization and the advance in information technology. In these changing environments, the UN has been tackling such issues as environment, infection, refugee, climate change and so forth. Most acute problems the international society is faced with at this moment can be characterized as “internal problems” such as ethnic problems, issues related to internally displaced persons (IDPs), democracy. He noted that the legitimacy of the UN activities in these fields is increasing. Thirdly he explained Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN. Japan has been consistently promoting its diplomacy in the fields of disarmament, human rights, and fragile states assistance. Japan also has been contributing to the activities of the UN by means of human resources and budget as well. Japan’s multilateral diplomacy has been conducted parallel to its bilateral diplomacy. Finally after his lecture, he responded to some questions and comments from students. (Yuhi Kawase)


[IntOrg] The role of International Organization for Migration and Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Ms. Naoko Hashimoto) (3rd October 2012)

 On 3rd October 2012, Ms. Naoko Hashimoto, the Programme Manager in IOM Tokyo Office, gave the students an informative lecture of two organizations: IOM and UNHCR. She emphasized the importance of IRO (International Refugee Organization) in understanding the births of IOM and UNHCR during 1950s. Firstly, she explained the activity of IOM. IOM primary focuses on promotion of humane and orderly migration in a way to benefit both migrants, including refugees, and sending/receiving societies. It has a lot of local offices so they can work in every corner effectively around the world. Secondly, she talked about UNHCR. She focused on the legal definition of refugees and how the activities of UNHCR have evolved during the past 60 years. Finally, she explained the relation between IOM and UNHCR and explained about Refugee Resettlement, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), climate change and migrants/refugees, and development and IOM / UNHCR. (Misa Komine)


[IntOrg] Introductory Lecture on the Role of International Organizations in Economic, Social, Development and Humanitarian Assistance (Professor Hasegawa) (26th September 2012)

 On 26th September 2012, in his introductory lecture on international organizations in the second term, Professor Hasegawa spoke first about the functional growth of the international organizations’ roles in economic, social, development and humanitarian affairs. He delineated the functional roles played by such organizations as ITU, ILO, UNEP and UNHCHR in fulfilling specific needs of the international community in telecommunication, labor standards, environmental and human rights. He also explained the special status and roles of IAEA and UN OCHA. IAEA is the organization that promotes peaceful use of atomic energy and carries out measures that prevent military application of such energy. IAEA has a unique methodology for election of its 35 Board Member States. Thirteen members are designated by the previous and 22 are elected on a geographical basis. Council Professor Hasegawa mentioned that UN OCHA is the central office that coordinates the activities of UN agencies and international NGOs in support of the victims of natural disaster and conflicts. The important roles are promotion of consistency and effectiveness. Secondly, Professor Hasegawa explained about a series of United Nations reform initiatives taken by then Secretary-General Kofi Anna in 1997 and by the General Assembly in 2005. He also mentioned the Delivering as One proposal made by a High Level Panel in 2006. (Daiki Kawabe)


[IntOrg] The Roles and Activities of International Organizations in Economy, Social Development and Humanitarian Aid (Professor Hasegawa) (19th September 2012)

 On 19th September 2012, Professor Hasegawa gave a lecture on the roles and activities of international organizations in economy, social development and humanitarian aid. First, he returned the students their previous term exam results and provided them with explanations. Some students read their own answers on essay questions to the class. Second, he explained the class plan for the fall semester. He then continued to explain the relations of international organizations and 11 funds and programs established by the General Assembly and 15 UN Specialized Agencies that reported to the Economic and Social Council. He categorized them in term of their origins, functions and roles. He noted the political factors that influenced the conduct of international organizations. (Yuko Honda)


[IntOrg] End-of-Semester Lecture (Professor Hasegawa) (11th July 2012)

 On 11th July 2012, in his the end-of-semester lecture, Professor Hasegawa reviewed first the changing roles of international organizations.Then he introduced the theories of Functionalism and Neo-Functionalism developed by David Mitrany and Ernst Haas respectively. Second he reviewed the birth and growth of international organization. He explained the causes for and lessons learned from the collapse of the League of Nation. Professor Hasegawa then presented a practical overview of the key issues arising in the relationship between international law and national law. Most of the countries accorded the highest authority to their national constitutions and tried to accommodate international treaties into their domestic legal system once their legislatures have ratified them. Professor Hasegawa explained the differences in how respective countries have dealt with the international legal agreements. In case of Japan, its constitution in article 98 stipulates the following: (1) this Constitution shall be the supreme law of the nation and no law, ordinance, imperial rescript or other act of government or part thereof, contrary to the provisions hereof, shall have legal force or validity; (2) the treaties concluded by Japan and established laws of nations shall be faithfully observed. Finally professor Hasegawa explained the need for the Japanese to play a more active role in international organizations. (Yuhi Kawase)


[IntOrg] Changing Roles of NATO (Director Mr. Yoshizaki) (4th July 2012)

 On 4th July 2012, Mr. Tomonori Yoshizaki, Director of the Security Studies Department of the National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS) of the Ministry of Defense, delivered a lecture on the evolving roles of international organizations from the viewpoint of collective security. First, he explained the collective security mechanism and three criteria of effective collective security, namely certainly, utility and inclusivity. Secondly, he provided a detailed explanation about the origin, growth and transformation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). As its mission goal, NATO started with the collective defense of the North Atlantic region during the Cold War. It then transformed itself with the expansion of its membership from 12 to 28 countries many of which are from the Eastern Europe and with the addition of providing security to not only its members but also countries suffering from humanitarian and other crisis. Professor Yoshizaki noted in summary that NATO had acquired a strategic nature in its crisis management by undertaking military interventions of coercive diplomacy and adopting a comprehensive approach aimed at protecting civilians in crisis, stabilization and security sector reform. The areas and countries in which NATO has undertaken military operations included Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Libya. Professor Yoshizaki also explained the difference between Libyan and Syrian situations and the implications of the establishment of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). (Yuko Honda)


[IntOrg] Noblemaire and Flemming Principles Governing Working Conditions UN Employees (Professor Hasegawa) (6th June 2012)

 On 6th June 2012, Professor Hasegawa lectured on two principles that governed the conditions of international civil servants working in the UN common system. The Noblemaire Principle set a salary scale of UN staff based on the highest paid national civil service and that the US federal civil service had been used as the comparator civil service. The second principle called the Flemming Principle stipulated that local staff of the UN system should be paid “best prevailing local rates” and according to “best prevailing local conditions.” Professor Hasegawa then explained in details the salaries and allowances of the UN’s the terms of employment. The salaries consisted of basically professional and general service. Their levels are decided on the competence and experience. The amount of salary is adjusted on the location of staff assignment post. UN staff also benefitted from education, dependency and other grants as well as annual, sick, maternity and other leaves. Professor Hasegawa analyzed the implications of UN staff benefits and allowances in terms of wider doctrines such as liberal and social democracy. Finally, he asked the students about their views on the applications of the Noblemaire and Flemming principles, which the students found reasonable and attractive particularly for female workers. The students were then given five minutes to write down their views. (Yasuki Uchiyama)


[IntOrg] International Public Service System (Professor Hasegawa) (30th May 2012)

 On 30th May 2012, Professor Hasegawa spoke on the international civil service system centered the United Nations common system. First, he explained how the international civil service emerged with the establishment of the League of Nations. The system was designed to enable international civil servants to maintain their highest standard, independence and impartiality. The Noblemaire Principle was established to provide the best working conditions and compensations to recruit most qualified personnel. Secondly, he explained the structure of United Nations secretariat consisting of the Secretary-General and his staff, including seven different kinds of contracts given to staff and personnel such as regular staff and technical cooperation personnel, etc. He noted dramatic increase in the ratio of women in staff composition as a result of gender equality policy adopted in the 1990’s. Finally, Professor Hasegawa talked about the recruitment criteria particularly competencies, academic qualification, professional expertise and proficiency in working languages. English has become the common language for use in most of the international organizations while French or Spanish is used as the second language.(Daiki Kawabe)


[IntOrg] Financial Basis and Resource in International Organizations (Ms. Akari Kano) (23rd May 2012)

 Today, Ms. Akari Kano gave students a lecture about the financial basis and resource in international organizations. The UN budget is determined in accordance to the principle of equal sovereignty. Member nations pursue their own interests, so the budget is said to have a political aspect. The UN has been operating on a smaller budget than generally believed. Recently, the UN came to deal with non-traditional security issues, so the budget has been increasing. There are some committees in the UN related to the budget, and they support the General Assembly. Financial resources of the UN are various. Commonly known are the expenses shared by member states of which Japan is the second largest. A share of expenses will be assessed by a certain equation, and this has been in line with world affairs. The UN is faced with financial difficulties because member nations do not pay their share of expenses. The US is falling behind payments totaling four hundred million. There are various reasons why member nations do not pay their share of expenses. Introducing international solidarity tax may be mentioned as a means to solve this matter. Japan has played an important role in the UN finance. However, Japan should not only make a financial contribution, but should also take leadership in terms of other areas. (Moe Kurisu)


[IntOrg] UN Security Council Reform (Mr.Umid and Professor Hasegawa) (16th May 2012)

 On 16th May 2012, Mr. Makhmudov Umid, a graduate student from Hosei University, made a presentation on the implications of the Security Council reform. One of the reasons why the Security Council needs reform is that the number of permanent members and non-permanent members are not sufficient to reflect the present condition of the world. Japan has attempted to be a permanent member along with India, Brazil and Germany. The failure of UN members to reach a consensus is their preoccupation with their national interests. According to Mr. Umid, Japan has diplomatic disputes with China, Russia, South Korea and so on. The Japanese tasks for the future are to take a leadership on the world stage, to resolve the disputes with the permanent members and to actively grapple with the reform of the Security Council.

 Professor Hasegawa then explained in detail the reform process which started in September 2003 when Kofi Atta Annan, the Secretary-General of the UN at the time, proposed the establishment of a High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. Since its establishment in November, the Panel addressed three questions: (1) “what is the new threat that the international society faces?” (2) “what can be taken as a group against the new threats?” and (3) “how should the structure of the UN be reformed?” With regard to the Security Council, the Panel considered imperative to increase its effectiveness and credibility by bringing into the Security Council those countries that contribute most in terms of decision making and resources. The Secretary-General reflecting the recommendations of the Panel then presented in his report, “In Larger Freedom”, two Models A and B. Professor Hasegawa also explained other suggestions and proposals made by Group of Four, Consensus Group, African Union, the United States and the LDCs. Intensive and extensive negotiations took place in 2005 but due to the lack of a promising prospect for adoption of any of the proposal, no voting took place on them and the Security Council reform was abandoned temporarily. Professor Hasegawa noted that the Secretary-General’s proposal reflected the rationale for a more effective way to manage the international security, while the member states pursued primarily their immediate national interest. The Westphalia world of anarchy still prevailed and the era of effective global governance was yet to come. (Yui Narikawa)


[IntOrg] The Function of International Labor Organization as an international organization (Professor Yozo Yokota) (9th May 2012)

 On 9th May 2012, Professor Yozo Yokota visited Hosei Universiy and delivered a lecture on International Labour Organisation as a unique international organization. First, he explained the history, role and importance of the International Labor Organization (ILO). Second, he noted the tripartite system of representation and decision making, the role for international standards setting and the supervisory function as the key roles played by ILO. Finally, Professor Yokota said that the ILO was a model of other International organizations. However, he also mentioned that it was required to reflect the changes taking place in its works. (Minako Ishikawa)


[IntOrg] New International Organizational Structure in Post-W.W.II (Professor Hasegawa) (25th April 2012)

 On 25th April 2012, Professor Hasegawa gave a lecture on the causes of First and Second World War and the changes incorporated in the principles, purposes and role of the international organizations. Firstly he explained that the failure of the collective security system adopted by the League of Nations is the lesson from its collapse. He then referred to various chapters and articles of the United Nations Charter. He also referred to several international conferences that prepared the establishment of the United Nations system and the Bretton Woods institutions. Professor Hasegawa explained three reforms adopted in 2005, such as the upgrading of the Human Rights Council and the International Peacebuilding Commission. He also mentioned key contributions made by Secretary-General particularly Boutros-Ghali and Kofi Annan under whom Professor Hasegawa served in peacekeeping missions from early 1990’s to 2006. (Sayaka Yatabe)


[IntOrg] Implications of international laws and treaties to sovereign nation states and the collapse of the League of Nations (Professor Hasegawa) (18th April 2012)

 On 18th April 2012, Professor Hasegawa made a detailed comparative analysis of the legal implications of international laws and treaties for sovereign nation states. He explained the legal status of an international organization and the relationship between an international law and a national law and noted the superior position given to either national or international laws by respective countries. In his lecture today, Professor Hasegawa also identified the three causal factors for the birth of an international organization. Particularly, he indicated that the desire to avoid any recurrence of war was one of the main reasons to create an international organization. He then explained how the League of Nations was established and identified lessons learned from its collapse. (Risa Kato)


[IntOrg] International Organizations -Their Birth and Growth- (Professor Hasegawa)(11th April 2012)

 On 11th April 2012, in his first lecture on international organizations, Professor Hasegawa first explained the purpose of the class and its annual plan. He emphasized the importance of being consciously aware of how the birth and roles of the international organizations are viewed from different perspectives. First, he explained about the definitions of “International Organizations” which consists of a narrow sense and a wide sense. He examined the causes and structures of various international organizations including inter-governmental organizations (IGO), civil society organizations (CSO) and non-governmental organizations (NGO). Secondly, he explained the roles and functions of these international organizations. Thirdly, he provided an overview of how the international organizations increased their number and roles in the Westphalia world that has been dominated by sovereign nation states as main actors. In doing so, he referred to differences that existed about “nation” or “country” and “states”. (Misa Komine)