[Diplomacy] Acting Ambassador and Minister Plenipotentiary of The Republic of Cameroon in Tokyo had a Dialogue with Hosei Students (3rd July 2012)

 On 3rd July 2012, Dr. Appolinaire Essomba, Acting Ambassador and Minister Plenipotentiary of The Republic of Cameroon in Tokyo, gave a lecture about the Republic of Cameroon to students of Hosei University. First of all, Dr. Essomba mentioned that there are many people in Cameroon each with different religious, racial and ethnic background. Although they live under different circumstances, they live in harmony and peace in Cameroon. He also said that Cameroon tries to cooperate with other international countries. When Cameroon had a territorial dispute with Nigeria, Cameroon managed to solve this problem in a peaceful way. They did not resort to an armed conflict. At last, Dr. Essomba said, it is more important rather to cooperate with other countries than to solve problems by force in today’s global society. (Mai Uchida)


[Diplomacy] The World Bank in the Multi-Polar Economy (Mr. Kazushige Taniguchi, Special Representative from Japan for The World Bank) (19th June 2012)

 On June 19th 2012, Mr. Kazushige Taniguchi, Special Representative from Japan for The World Bank visited Hosei University and delivered a lecture on The World Bank in The Multi-Polar Economy. First, he insisted on the Developing Countries’ Rising Role and background of developing countries. Although developing countries are playing a key role in the global growth, those countries still have some issues. For example, high percentage of population without access to electricity, excessive numbers of deaths of female population and children under the age of five and high emission of CO2. Second, he made statements on Japanese economy and population. Total Population of Japan has been continuously decreasing since 2005, the year which the peak of the Japanese population was at and GDP of Japan is not growing after the collapse of Japan’s economic bubble. Finally, Mr. Taniguch explained general description of The World Bank. He said that The World Bank is the largest international development financial institution in the world and provides long-term development assistance to developing countries by cooperating with The International Monetary Fund (IMF) in comparing countries. He also explained about “World Bank/International Monetary Fund Annual Meetings” that is to be held in Japan this year. (Minako Ishikawa)


[Diplomacy] Liberalism and International Political Economy (Professor Hasegawa) (12th June 2012)

 On 12th June 2012, Professor Hasegawa delivered a lecture on liberalism and international political economy. Adam Smith claimed that wealth of nation increases if economic activities are left to the invisible hand. David Ricardo said that the theory of comparative advantage explains the benefit of free trade. They insisted that a government should leave men and their activities alone and not to regulate them. Liberalism has three variations. It is market, institutional and republican liberalism. Interdependence makes nation states to seek stability and peace while international organizations set norms and rules to enable states to cooperate. Secondly, Professor Hasegawa explained the Neo-liberalism. The market should function without government intervention. Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan are the ones who carried this out. By various systems such as GATT or WTO, the doctrine advocating global free market gained strength. Then John Williamson made the Washington consensus which called for restructuring, deregulation, tax reform, tariff abolition, free capital movement, etc. Thirdly, Professor Hasegawa explained the implications of financial crises that took place during the last two decades The Asian Financial Crisis started in Thailand and spread to Indonesia, South Korea and other parts of Asia and Russia in late 1990s. This was a sudden loss of confidence in national currencies of these countries. The world financial crisis that continues up to today began by the extension of excess subprime loans in 2007. Finally, he explained the nature and extent of the current European sovereign debt crisis. Many European countries are suffering from enormous debts from huge public expenditure and capital shortage in banks. The amount of public expenditures has been kept relatively low in comparison with other advanced countries. The number of public servants in Japan is less than almost all other industrialized countries of Europe and North America. Japanese banks which had most serious problem in the 1990s now have low loan deposit ratios and stronger a capital liquidity position than European banks. But, the level of Japan`s government and public sector debt is excessively high at about twice the amount of Japan’s gross domestic product. The public debt has to be curtailed lest it would eventually impact the national solvency. (Daiki Kawabe)


[Diplomacy] The international frameworks and politics of Japan in the field of reduction and nonproliferation of arms (Ms. Keiko Yanai) (5th June 2012)

 On June 5th 2012, Ms. Keiko Yanai who is the Senior Coordinator, Non-Proliferation, Science and Nuclear Energy Division, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and Science Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs lecture on the non-proliferation politics. First, she talked about means of arms reduction and nonproliferation, and explained that they are needed for three reasons; the military security, humanitarianism and the economical development. Also, she referred to the present condition of nuclear states in the world, the general outline of NPT and rules of IAEA and Japanese policies on arms reduction and nonproliferation. Next, she talked about termination attempt on the use of CCM as a case-study for international struggle for arms reduction and nonproliferation. Then, she referred to the UN’s process on reduction and nonproliferation and noted that the diplomacy is to adjust the profits and national interests states have to promote. Finally, she argued that the cooperation with a civil society is required for nations to encourage the reduction and non proliferation. (Sayaka Yatabe)


[Diplomacy] Japanese UN diplomacy on human rights (Mr. Akio Miyajima) (29th May 2012)

 On May 29th, 2012, Mr. Akio Miyajima, Deputy Director-General, Foreign Policy Bureau of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs visited our University and gave a lecture in the Diplomacy class on Japanese UN diplomacy on human rights. First, he outlined basic concept of human rights and shared the class with recent news reports and focused on the history of human rights, important advancements and setbacks including genocides, after the WWII. Second, he explained on UN’s effort on human rights, its achievements as well as limits. He cited important UN agreements including UN Charter and World Declaration on human rights. He also talked about the new concept of “Responsibility to Protect.(R2P)”When human rights of civilians are not by their government, who should protect them? What is the responsibility of international community? Finally, he explained on Japanese diplomacy on human right and emphasized that Japan basically relies on “dialogue and cooperation”approach and has employed “human security” as important implementing perspective. He talked about efforts on UN human rights resolution. He distributed copy of Statement by Mr.Yamane, Senior Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs at Human Rights Council High-level segment in Geneva which highlighted Japanese efforts on human rights both at international level and at home. (Risa Kato)


[Diplomacy] The United Nations’ role on diplomacy (Mr. Yasushi Akashi, Former Under-Secretary-General of the UN) (22th May 2012)

 On May, 22, 2012, Mr. Akashi, former Undersecretary-General of the United Nations, visited Hosei University and gave a lecture on the United Nations in relation to its current challenges and interventions. Though the UN is carrying out on an intervention in Syria, – through ex-Secretary-General Kofi Anann’s mediation and its truce-monitoring mission, anti-government groups are claiming that current intervention by the UN is insufficient and calling for further UN involvement in Syria. But it is impossible to answer such a call. There are two reasons why the UN is unable to do so. First, the system of the Security Council. The existence of veto, held by five permanent members, is a cause of difficulty in decision making. This prerogative for the five is important in keeping powerful nations engaged in the UN. Second the interest of each member state that has a strong influence on the UN and its decision making. The UN is in some dilemma, having learned from failures in intervention in the past. A new notion was proclaimed in the Outcome Document adopted in 2005 as “the responsibility to protect”. At present, the UN is in a major transition from absolute state sovereignty to the implementation of trans-national human rights. The system of the Security Council and the divergent state interests prevent the UN from living up to the high expectation of the UN charter. On the other hand, member states can reach agreement when find a mutual interest to do so. So the key for greater efficiency of the UN is for the member states explore and reach more compromises in their struggle for interest harmonization, in order to better manage the UN. (Yuka Narikawa)


[Diplomacy] Ambassador of Ireland Holds Dialogue with Hosei Students (8th May 2012)

 In this opening speech, Professor Katsuya Hirose, Dean, Faculty of Law welcomed the Ireland ambassador. In delivering his keynote speech, Ambassador John Neary provided first basic information on historical developments particularly those that took place after independence in 1922. Emphasizing its foreign policy of neutrality, he explained the Irish foreign policy centering the United Nations and participated in UN peacekeeping operations. Ireland had a strong commitment to a rules-based international order. In spite of its challenging economic situation at home, Ireland continues to spend about 0.52 percent of its gross domestic product for ODA activities with a particular focus on newly independent countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The Irish ambassador also explained the relationship between Ireland and Great Britain and mentioned the successful outcome of diplomatic negotiations between the two countries concerning Northern Ireland. In addition, he mentioned Ireland’s economic, social and cultural ties with Japan. Following the Ambassador’s presentation, Professor Mikiko Eto, Head of Department of Political Science, commented Ireland’s high status in human development index (HDI), democracy ranking and freedom index. Finally, Hosei University students asked questions to Ambassador concerning the neutrality policy, causes of conflict in Northern Ireland, ODA and other issues. (Yuko Honda)


[Diplomacy] Japanese Security Policy and Public Diplomacy (Mr. Shigeki Takizaki) (24th April 2012)

 On 24th April 2012, Mr, Shigeki Takizaki, Director, Personnel Division in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, made a lecture about “Japanese Security Policy” and “Public Diplomacy”. First, he explained about the “Japanese security policy”. After explaining what is national security and the security environment of Japan which has remained unstable even after the Cold War finished, he demonstrated Japan’s three-layered security policy. The first one is to protect itself by its own efforts such as the Self-Defense Forces. The second is to strengthen Japan-US security arrangements. The last one is to contribute to global security by sending SDF to UN peacekeeping operations, working active at various international organizations such as the UN etc. Second, he explained about “public diplomacy”. It is diplomacy which works directly upon individuals and the public opinion abroad to increase a national interest and to achieve diplomatic purpose. It is getting more important because the public opinion today mobilizes a government especially in democratic society. However, it is difficult for the public diplomacy to achieve something beyond real diplomatic policy or what a country really is. Finally he showed Japanese public diplomacy to the US through his experiences such as JET(Japan Exchange and Teaching) programme and the centennial of gift of cherry trees from Japan to US. (Yui Narikawa)


[Diplomacy] Comprehensive Foreign Policy and Diplomacy – theory and practice (Professor Hasegawa) (April 17th 2012)

 On April 17th 2012, Professor Hasegawa lectured on Diplomacy theory and practice. First, he explained the difference between nation country and state. It is important to understand Sovereignty and Control. Second, he lectured in the diplomatic method. He referred to the origin of diplomacy and development. As an example, he used the thoughts of Thomas Hobbes, Rousseau and Carl Schmitt. Third, he explained modern diplomacy. He explained Mixture of ideology. He said that if mixture of ideology occurs, double diplomacy will break out. After that, he showed us video clip about the World War II in order to discuss why Japan started the Pacific War. Finally, he compared the main point of realism which faces the problem of Dilemma of a security with Neo-realism which assumes objective society. (Yuhi Kawase)


[Diplomacy] Comprehensive Foreign Policy and Diplomacy – Theory and Practice (Professor Hasegawa) (April 10th, 2012)

 On April 10th, 2012, Professor Hasegawa started his lecture on Sogo Gaiko Koza (Comprehensive Foreign Policy and Diplomacy). First, he explained the synthesis on foreign policy, paradigm shift and method of evaluation. He explained how any particular paradigm affects the perception of events by people. As an example, he referred to the changing views of Japanese people about the launchings of ballistic missiles by North Korea over the past several years. Second, he explained various forms of diplomacy practiced by nation states, their governments and citizens and the difference in how diplomacy has been conducted by authoritarian and democratic countries. He referred to the problem created for the Government of Japan by the unintended outcome of the visit of former Prime Minister Hatoyama to Iran. In addition, he explained the importance of knowing the partners and adversaries as well as oneself in diplomacy and negotiations as explained by Sun Tzu and Mitoji Yabunaka. Third, he explained the implications of the Westphalia order and sovereignty of state. Finally, he mentioned the main elements of theories of realism, liberalism and constructivism in explaining international relations, including the term of “security dilemma”. (Yasuki Uchiyama)