On December 4th, an international symposium on “Humanitarian Diplomacy: Diplomats Who Saved Jewish People” was held at Hosei University. First of all, President Toshio Masuda gave an opening address. Then, Mr. Ulf SÖRMRK, Minister-Counsellor of the Kingdom of Sweden, Mr. Peleg-Pablo LEWI, Acting Ambassador of Israel, and Mr. István GERELYES, Minister-counsellor of Hungary, made the audience welcoming remarks. After that, Ms. Fumiko ISHIOKA, Representative of the Tokyo Holocaust Education Resource Center, and Professor Hasegawa gave them keynote speeches. Ms. Ishioka told them about the accomplishments of Mr. Raoul Wallenberg and their significance and Professor Hasegawa indicated the accomplishments of Mr. Sugihara Chiune and insistence on humanitarian diplomacy and global justice in the context of the Westphalia world of nation states of which concern has remained national security and interest. Various issues and opinions were then expressed by three panelists: Mr. Masaaki SHIRAISHI, Deputy Director Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, Professor Mikiko ETO, Department of Politics, Faculty of Law, and Dr. Vesselin POPOVSKI, Senior Academic Programme Officer of the United Nations University. The discussion became lively and heated at a time. After panel discussion, a few participants made comments and asked questions. At the end of the discussion session, Professor Hasegawa a summary of views expressed and Professor Yoshiro Fukuda, Hosei University Executive Vice President, gave closing remarks. (Moe Kurisu)
On 16th October 2012, Professor Yozo Yokota gave a stimulating lecture on “International Law and Global Governance”. Professor Yokota had taught international law at Chuo University, University of Tokyo and International Christian University for over forty years and currently serves as President of the Center for Human Rights Education and Training, Chairperson of the ILO Committee of Experts and President of Japan Association for United Nations Studies. He began his lecture by giving his definition of “Global Governance”. He stated: “Global governance is an ability of various responsible actors to address and manage global issues adequately in order to ensure safety, health, wellbeing and meaning life to mankind.” He further analyzed the three main concepts of this definition, namely, “actors”, “global issues” and “adequacy of addressing and management”. He then explained the meaning of “international law”. According to Professor Yokota, “international law is a system of law to regulate the relationship between States, international organizations, individuals, civil society organizations, enterprises and other actors in the world community.” He further pointed out that, while international law has contributed to ensure global governance in the past, there are still serious limitations such as lack of provisions and insufficiency of enforcement. He concluded that, in order to strengthen the role of international law to promote good governance, more efforts are needed to make better use of the provision of Article 13, paragraph 1(a), of the UN Charter, which reads: “encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification.” (Misa Komine)
On 2nd October, 2012, Mr. Isilio Antonio de Fatima Coelho da Silva, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Embassy of Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, visited Hosei University, and gave his lecture as the third class of the global governance. The theme was “Reconstruction and state building in Timor-Leste: its accomplish, progress and vision for future”. At first, the ambassador explained the civil war of the 90s, and emphasized two causes, namely, decolonization and the Cold War. Concretely, decolonization was premature for Timor-Leste of the day since the government lost the adequate capacity, and the struggle for power between the United States and the Soviet Union also embroiled it in the dispute. Thus, these two factors provoked the civil war. And then, the ambassador mentioned the United Nations peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations. With referring to the case of Timor-Leste, all attendance, including the ambassador, professors, and students, confirmed that the United Nations has played the dedicated role toward peace in post-conflict countries. As the ambassador asserted, Timor-Leste is growing as a peaceful country now. Its accomplish, progress, and vision for the future, gave an audience further expectations toward the brighter future. (Risa Kato)
On 25th September, 2012, Professor Hasegawa gave the students his second lecture on global governance. First, he explained a realist approach to world politics and referred to Hans Morgenthau. According to Morgenthau’s argument, sovereign states are regarded as the key actors, and they act rationally to ensure their national interests in international relations. Second, the professor expounded neo-realism and presented Kenneth Waltz’s contention that there is a structure even in the anarchic world. He indicated the weakness of international laws and the epiphenomenal character of international organizations. Third, the students gained insight into liberalism and neo-liberalism. They learned that several factors such as collective security, democratic peace, democracy promotion, integration between states and interdependence play a crucial role in the theory of liberalism. In addition, it’s worth mentioning the fact that the professor emphasized human rights, freedom, private ownership and other norms as significant elements of liberalism in the international relations. In addition, the professor indicated four kinds of liberalism namely, commercial liberalism, republic liberalism, sociological liberalism, and liberal institutionalism, at the end of the lecture. (Minako Ishikawa)
On 18th September, 2012, Professor Hasegawa started his course on global governance with an explanation of its objective, schedule, grading method and reference books. He expected the students to be able to explain and discuss in English various theories and concepts of global governance by the end of the course in January 2013. Professor Hasegawa then identified four types of the globalization taking place in security, economic, environmental, and social/cultural spheres. Moreover, he explained the significance of global governance in the worlds of both Westphalia and post-Westphalia order. He referred to a definition given by the Commission on Global Governance and nine new global threats identified by the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change in its report A more secure world: Our shared responsibility published in December 2004. Finally, he introduced realism and discussed its relevance to global governance. He said he would introduce and examine later the relevance of other theories of international relations and global governance such neo-realism, liberalism, neo-liberalism, functionalism, social-constructivism, and critical theories. (Yasuki Uchiyama)
On 29 June 2011, the last day of Global Governance class, Professor Hasegawa delivered a lecture on the “Global Environmental Governance”. The lecture was divided into 5 parts: the definition of global environmental governance. global conferences, institutional mechanisms, climate change, the requirements for effective global environmental governance. In part1, 2, 3, he explained a number of conferences and the reasons for establishing institutions such as UNEP and UNFCCC. Moreover, he introduced Kyoto Protocol that aimed at reducing the emissions of green-gas materials in detail. In addition, he explained the key role of the USA and China as well as the need for renewed international commitment to sustainable development. In final part, professor Hasegawa concluded lecture with a brief identification of 5 challenging factors for effective environmental management: population growth, justice and equity, technological improvement and need for change in life-style. (Jieun Park)
On July 6, 2011, Dr. Vesselin Popovski, Senior Academic Officer United Nations University, Tokyo delivered a lecture, “Justice and Global Governance”. He explained Nuremburg/Tokyo Achievements in detail. This achievement mainly means that individuals become subject of International Law. And there are differences between ICC and hoc ICTs and also ICC and ICJ. After giving account of differences, he introduced the ICC prospects. At final part of his nice lecture, he mentioned that Justice creates short-term tension, but brings long-term peace.
On 29 June 2011, Professor Hasegawa lectured on the “Social Constructivism” and “Justice and Democracy for Global Governance”.
Before he introduced Constructivism, he explained the four theories on international relations: classical realism, structural realism, classical liberalism and neo-liberalism. Constructivism is based on recognition of the important as well as universals and universal factors. The universal factors are Principles (which is universal), Values (which depends on your society or environment), Beliefs, Norms, Laws and Standards. According to the US Declaration of Independence, Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness are certain UNALIENABLE Rights.
Professor Hasegawa also introduced the three theories of the justice for global governance: utilitarianism, libertarianism and the theory of justice. The “justice as fairness” is the most influential element in the theory of justice which is proposed by John Rawls. According to the “Perpetual Peace” by Immanuel Kant, if national sovereignty were left to the people rather than kings, there would be no war.
In a Lecture given on June 22, Professor. Hasegawa explained various“Theoretical Approaches on Global Governance of a Globalizing Economy”. He had five points in the lecture. First he explained classical liberal economic theory. Second he highlighted key aspects of the post WW 1 economic theory. These are neo-liberal economic theory and its triumph following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Third he noted the significance of the Washington consensus which has ten contents. Forth he explained neo-Marxist view of the root causes of the current economic and financial problems. Finally he pointed out the prospect for better global economic governance with contrasting roles that can be played by G20 and United Nation. (Sayuri Maruyama)
On June 15, Mr. Kazushige Taniguchi, the Special Representative of the World Bank in Japan gave a lecture.
At first, he explained that developing countries including India and China are now contributing to more than half of the global economic growth. This is the new international order different from the times which developed countries such as the G7 led the world economy. While the economic development of developing countries is remarkable, it is also true that there are more than 1 billion people who have no access to electricity. In addition, he stated that millions of children die every year before age 5. One of the major causes is diarrhea that results in dehydration. Therefore, safe water is effective to reduce the child mortality. This means water and electricity can help. And he explained even if it seems to be a problem of one sector (health), there are many cases which need policy interventions of other sectors (infrastructure, energy). He told charitable works are noble but they alone are not able to reach the sustainable solution. About Japan, he cautioned that Japanese population would be decreasing to 48 million by the end of the 21st century.
On the economic side, since the collapse of the bubble, there has been a continued increase in the budget while decrease of tax revenues, resulting in the rapid expansion of burden on the future generations. Such a combination would generate a special challenge for the future of Japan. (Mai Kato)
On June 8, 2011, Mr. Yasuaki Aihara, Deputy Director of Secretariat of the International Peace Cooperation Headquarters, Cabinet Office, delivered a lecture, “UNPKO and Japan’s International Peace Cooperation”.
On May 25th, Professor Tomonori Yoshizaki, the National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS), gave a lecture titled “Global Security and Conflict Resolution” for Global Governance Course as a guest speaker.
In his second lecture on global governance, Professor Hasegawa explained the significance of several theories on how nation states had pursued their national security and interest in an anarchic international society. Following identification of realism, liberalism, post-communism, constructivism and functionalism, Professor noted the main themes of realism and liberalism in today`s lecture.
On May 11, Professor Hasegawa conducted the first class on global governance. He first explained how the class would be conducted and grades given. He then gave his first lecture on concepts and theories of global governance. He also presented new global issues that required new new approaches and paradigms to understand them and find solutions to the newly emerging global problems. Peaceful use of nuclear energy did not received as much attention in 1996 when the Chernobyl nuclear plant exploded as it is now receiving with the explosion of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear power plants.
Professor Hasegawa delivered a lecture on 7 July on the idea of global public goods and the significance of protecting them in the era of globalization. Global public goods are common property and rules for all people on Earth and need preservation. He gave as examples oceans, water and air and also mentioned human rights and freedoms as inviolable rights of all people. . He then explained how the notion…
2010年6月23日のGlobal Governance では、東京大学名誉教授、国際連合大学名誉副学長である安井至さんをお迎えし、「持続可能な未来のために」というテーマの下講義していただきました。最初に安井氏は、経済活動が環境問題の主たる原因であり、特に化石燃料の利用が最大の問題であると主張しました。グローバル化が進む中で、持続可能な開発を目指し、ミレニアム開発目標を達成することが、地球温暖化を含む環境問題を解決するために重要であると述べられました。またこれらを解決していくために、省エネを目指す新しい技術的概念やライフスタイルを、日本のコタツなどを例に挙げて提案されました。（木村）
On June 16th, Mr. Obijiofor Aginam from the Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University Headquarters, gave a lecture on “Africa in a Globalized World” at Hosei University. He explained about the historical and political backgrounds of African countries shaped in colonial and the Cold War periods in detail. Also, he pointed out the global inequalities in terms of economic and intellectual development that are centered in Africa. He made a detailed reference to the establishment and works of WTO for AIDS and HIV and pointed out a need for improved medical access in order to decrease the number of infected persons. He suggested that for Africa, various reforms of not only the internal issues but also international systems are essential so as to overcome the inequalities. (Ryosuke Ohyama)
本日は、長谷川教授が国際化した経済のグローバルガバナンスについて講義されました。世界大戦前後の世界の経済理論、経済分野における哲学者の主な思想などについての説明が詳しく行われました。日本に置き換えて考えることや、他国の政策なども知ることが出来ました。また、ワシントン合意(Washington Consensus)の評価を、様々な角度から見ることができました。 (橋本佳奈)
Today, professor Hasegawa gave a lecture on Global Governance of a globalizing economy. He explain world economic theory before and after WWⅡ, ideas of philosophers on world economic and so on. We could think about Japanese case and know policy of foreign government. Moreover, we knew revisiting on Washington Consensus from many other angles.(Kana Hashimoto)
Mr. Kazushige Taniguchi, the Special Representative of the World Bank in Japan delivered a lecture on 2 June at Hosei University. He explained the implications of the falling birthrate and increasing national debt on the future financial, economic and social conditions in Japan. After the bubble economy burst in the beginning of 1990`s, Japan`s economy in terms of GDP remained stagnant for twenty years, while it had grown rapidly in previous decades. This necessitated the Government of Japan to borrow extensively to finance its national budget deficit. Mr. Taniguchi said the level of Japan`s debt is higher than that of Greece, but so far it is financed by domestic saving. This may not be possible in the near future as the national debt continues to increase. To change this current prospect, it is not sufficient to cut down waste. He suggested that investing in developing countries in proper ways is one solution for not only Japan but also for the world.(Kotaro Takahashi)
本日は世界銀行駐日代表の谷口様をお招きし、日本の将来と途上国への投資の問題を中心にお話をいただきました。日本ではバブル崩壊以降株価や土地の値段が下がり出生率も低い状況が続いている。他方、経済対策としてバブル崩壊後20年間に年平均20兆円以上、国債を財源として予算を増やしながら減税をした結果、国の借金が累計で約500兆円増えたが、GDPはほとんど伸びなかった。 これらの借金の返済は大変なことだが、仮に予算のムダを20兆円切ったとしても、新しい借金が増えないだけで、過去の借金は一銭も返せない。 他方、日本の人口は今世紀末には現在よりも約8,000万減って、1/3になる可能性がある。 世界経済に目を向けると、途上国は過去20年間に10倍、5倍といった成長をしており、今後もアフリカを含めて高い成長の可能性がある。日本も、内向きなままではジリ貧である。世界に目を向け、途上国援助はチャリティではなく投資という発想で、途上国と共に発展するという戦略が必要。 日本が今後の世界と共に持続的発展をするためには、例えば環境分野に対して投資していくべきだと述べられました。(高橋孝太郎)
Mr. Shigeki Takizaki, Director of the National Security Division and the Office for International Peace Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs delivered a lecture on 26 May at Hosei University. He explained the exclusive defensive nature of Japanese defense forces and the role played by the Japan-US security structure. Japan`s commitment to the international community is carried out through bilateral diplomacy with the neighboring countries, multilateral security dialogues, arms control, disarmament, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and contribution to international peacebuilding efforts. According to Mr. Takizaki, peacebuilding consisted of consolidation of peace and nation building. Japan`s initiatives in peacebuilding included participation in UN peacekeeping operations and multilateral forces, expansion of ODA activities, intellectual contribution on human security, respect for local ownership, leadership at UN Security Council and Peacebuilding Commission, training of peacebuilders from Asia and Japan, and support to PKO centres in Africa and Malaysia. Mr. Takizaki referred to a special session held by the Security Council under the chairmanship of Foreign Minister Okada on 16 April to debate on how to strengthen the peacebuilding activities, by quoting what Foreign Minsiter Okada said, “Creating a long-lasting peace requires sustained cooperation between a post-conflict country and the international community…Japan will continue to participate actively in the efforts towards achieving sustainable peace in post-conflict countries.(Rena Kondo)