On 23rd February 2013, Mr. Yasuki Uchiyama held a farewell party, “oikon”, for the outgoing seminar students. He showed a memorial video which contained photos and stories of what had happened during the past year. They included memorial pictures of study tours to India/Bangladesh, Myanmar and Former Yugoslavia as well as seminars and symposia held at Hosei University including the visit of former President Ramos-Horta. After the wonderful movie, Mr. Uchiyama and his classmates gave cards to Professor Hasegawa and the third-year students who were graduating from the seminar class. Professor Hasegawa thanked Mr. Uchiyama for having organized such a memorable event and presented the certificates of appreciation and special contributions made by the seminar president and his deputies, Yui Narikawa and Minako Ishikawa. Professor Hasegawa also handed certificates of contributions and special efforts made by other members of the seminar class. (Shogo Yoshida)
The final seminar class and events were held on 16 January 2013, first in Classroom S-307 where Professor Hasegawa conducted his last lecture on international organizations and then a group of the seminar students gathered in the special faculty meeting room to talk about what they had learned from the seminar class. Many of them pointed out that they had gained confidence and learned how to speak up and express their opinions. They recalled many events that they had successfully planned and managed such as “dialogues with ambassadors” and symposia. They also pointed out that it was challenging to read so many books by Russell on philosophy on knowledge, Joseph Nye, Jr. on history of conflicts, Michael Sandel on justice, Bellamy on peacekeeping written in English. Through lectures, presentations and discussion, they succeeded in achieving much this year. The seminar students expressed their wish to maintain their association. We thanked Professor Hasegawa for guiding us this year. (Yasuki Uchiyama)
On 18th December 2012, during the 4th period class, four seminar students: Misa Komine, Yuuka Hirakawa, Eri Iijima and Yuki Shozui, made presentations on global poverty issues with water resources. First, Misa Komine explained some advantages of ensuring safe water and sanitary facilities. Then, Yuuka Hirakawa took up the following causes not of establishment of water supply: (1) water shortage, (2) gaps between supply and demand, and (3) budget deficit in infrastructure improvement. Next, Eri Iijima described the background of water shortage and suggested that governments should consider the secondary damages with infrastructure development such as the violation of human rights and the destruction of the environment. Finally, Yuki Shozui concluded that all the states must not only fulfill equality and efficient of resources, but also enable coming generation to continuously enjoy the benefit of water. In the 5th period, as a review of the class of last week, all seminar students discussed the following: (1) why “Liberal Democracy” needs in post-conflict countries; (2) why the UN often failed to introduce “Liberal Democracy” to the countries; and (3) how the UN can realize internal peace and stability in the countries. After the discussion, Professor Hasegawa looked back to the seminar class of this year. He referred to some main points of the textbooks which the seminar students read intensively in this seminar. In the end, he explained essay quizzes on these books which will carry out on 8th January 2013, the final seminar class. (Shogo Yoshida)
On 4th December 2012, we had all-inclusive lecture on the conclusion of “Understanding Peacekeeping”. First of all, Mai Uchida reviewed each chapter and explained the transition of peacekeeping activities. There are many different subcategories in operations, but the ones most significant are in missions that aim to assist transitions and transitional administrations. Then Minako Ishikawa pointed out themes and issues; (1) To understand the relation between Westphalia and Post-Westphalia. (2) A gap between the theory and practice on peace operations. (3) The proliferation of actors associated with peace operations. Finally, Yui Narikawa explained 4 thoughts on the future peace operations; (1) The debate between advocates of Westphalian and post-Westphalian. (2) The trend towards mixed forms of peacekeeping is likely to continue. (3) The legitimacy of peace operations will be tied to their capacity. (4) Great power politics will continue.
After the presentation we discussed the future of peacekeeping operation and the transition of international relations. (Mai Nakasendo)
On 27th November 2012, Yuhi Kawase made a presentation on policing in the context of peace operations on the basis of the chapter 17 of the “Understanding Peacekeeping” written by Alex J. Bellamy and Paul D. Williams. He spared most of his time for providing the historical overview of policing in peace operations. After his presentation, students discussed and shared their views and understandings on what sort of challenges policing in peace operations confronts.
In the latter half of our class, Yui Narikawa, Yasuki Uchiyama, and Moe Kurisu, who belong to study group of the development economics, made presentations on the significance of human capital in developing countries’ economy on the basis of the “Economic Development” written by Michael P. Todaro and Stephen Smith. They specially focused on how health affects development, economic analysis of child labour, and social costs and benefits of education in developing countries. In the class, professor Hasegawa helped us grasping the ideas and terminologies frequently used in economics. (Jun Sune Misu)
On 16th November 2012, before the autumn-camp of the Hasegawa seminar class, Professor Hasegawa and four students spent a day and they learned on Justice that Professor Michael J. Sandel analyzes in his lectures at Harvard University. The students made their presentations of the four chapters.
First, Ms. Misa Komine gave an example of conscription system and surrogate birth based on her reading of the chapter 4. Next presenter, Mr. Yasuki Uchiyama, explained John Rawl’s philosophy, “A Theory of Justice”, contained in the chapter 6. The third presentation was made by Mr. Keiki Takemasa, and he summarized the issues of affirmative actions in the chapter 7. Finally, Ms. Yui Narikawa mentioned the dilemma of loyalty in the chapter 9.
The presentations by four students followed viewing of the video recordings of the actual lectures delivered by Professor Sandel. These video recordings enable the students to enhance their understandings of various issues pertaining the concept of justice.
On November 13th 2012, during the 4th period class, the presentation on the chapter 15 of the book, “Understanding Peacekeeping” was given by Peace Building Group. They explained what “protection of civilian” (POC) is. After their presentation, we discussed whether the Japan Self-Defense Forces should protect civilians during peace keeping operations. During the 5th period, we welcomed Mr. Hanazato Nobuhiko, the Director of the JICA Tokyo International Center and he delivered us the lecture entitled “Conflict and Development -through experience in Afghanistan-“. (Yuna Kitamura)
On 30th of October 2012, during the 4th period, the presentation on the chapter 13 of the “Understanding Peacekeeping” was given by Economic Development Group.
First, Eri Iijima explained the concept of regionalization. Secondly, Sune Jun Misu referred advantages and disadvantages about regionalization. Advantages of regionalization primarily are geographical proximity, long-term activities, and likelihood of its intervention even when the UN had decided not to intervene. Disadvantages of regionalization, on the other hand, are that they are likely to seek profit, lack of funding and that there are certain cases where such regional organization is nonexistent. After that, Mai Nakasendo explained regional peace keeping in practice by presenting example from the Islands of Solomon and Liberia.
During the 5th period, Justice Group presented the philosophy advocated by Michel Sandel. Chapter 5 focuses on Immanuel Kant. Moe Kurisu introduced the perspective of Kant which justice is defined by the nature of motivation for an action.Misa Komine explained what the best principle is. Then, seminar members watched lecture by Sandel on DVD.
At last, seminar members parted into 3 groups, utilitarian, libertarian, and faction Kanto, and exchanged their opinions on Japan’s pension system. (Mai Kato)
On 23rd October 2012, during the 4th period class, Daiki Kawabe, Yuko Honda and Mai Kato made presentations on peace support operations on the basis of the Chapter 9 of the “Understanding Peacekeeping”. They mentioned that, according to the British peacekeeping doctrine, peace support operations consist of military elements and diplomatic and humanitarian agencies. In addition, they pointed out that peace support operations are deployed under the basic principles of United Nations Peacekeeping: (1) consent of the concerning parties, (2) impartiality and (3) non-use of force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate. Especially, they emphasized the difference between impartiality (“treating everyone according to the same principles”) and neutrality (“opting not to take a position”).
In the 5th period, Sune Jun Misu, Hayato Takeuchi, Mai Nakasendo, Aimi Ezawa and Minshik Kim made presentations on agricultural transformation and rural development on the basis of the “Economic Development” written by Todaro and Smith. First, they introduced Authors’ questions that even petty farmers should be integrated into the processes of development if rural development directly affects the process of poverty reduction. Moreover, they also presented their analysis on the situations of farm management in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Finally, they suggested it is the very ideal form of rural development to improve long tillable systems and social welfare for labors.
During 4th period on October 16th of 2012, Risa Kato, Yuui Sasaki, and Sayaka Yatabe, who are members of the Peace Building Group, made a presentation on the theme of why the rule of law was not implemented in Timor-Leste. They focused on the importance of rule of law and explained the problem of ruling Timor-Leste.
In 5th period, Aimi Ezawa, Yasuki Uchiyama, Minshik Kim, and Hayato Takeuchi, who are members of the Economic Development Group, made a presentation on transitional administration of understanding peacekeeping. They pointed out the importance of cooperation between local people and outside actors. After the presentation, Professor Hasegawa addressed his students on the issue concerning transitional administration in detail based on his field experience. We learned that it is essential for the United Nations to build a liberal-democratic state that reflects the opinions of the local people.
On 9th October 2012, in the 4th period, we firstly discussed the theme about the joint session of study tour which will be held on 21th October 2012. After this discussion, Kohei Yokota, Minako Ishikawa and Sayaka Yatabe who are members of the Peace Building Group made a presentation about Chapter 10: Assisting Transition. After this presentation, the students discussed in four groups “Was it appropriate that UNTAC withdrew from Cambodia after the election?”
In the 5th period, Yuka Narikawa, Yuko Honda, Mai Uchida and Yuhi Kawase who are members of the Human Rights Group made a presentation about Refugees. The students then discussed in four groups “Whether Japan should accept the refugees or not”. (Aimi Ezawa)
Hasegawa Seminar’s first class of the Fall semester was held on September 18th of 2012.In 4th period, the new secretaries gave the orientation about the second semester. Yasuki Uchiyama explained the lesson plan. After him, Mai Uchida explained the research skill improvement program. Then, Minako Ishikawa gave information on the new procedure for writing the minutes of the proceedings.
During 5th period, the research skill improvement program was held. Shogo Yoshida explained the worksheet that was handed out beforehand and how to write a thesis. After talking about what they filled out on the worksheets, seminar members discussed their awareness of issues for each group.
On 17th July 2012, the Seminar students elected their new leaders by secret ballot, and then Mr. Yasuki Uchiyama was selected as the 7th Head of the Seminar. In addition, three Vice Heads of the Seminar were chosen: Ms. Mai Uchida, Ms. Minako Ishikawa and Ms. Yui Narikawa. The new Head, Mr. Uchiyama, made a general policy speech and he said that he wished to make the remaining six months of the seminar much better with all the seminar students cooperating. (Yasuki Uchiyama)
On 10th Jul 2012, we attended the all-inclusive lecture by Professor Hasegawa. Using their PowerPoint slides made by Yui Narikawa and Moe Kurisu, Professor Hasegawa explained “Globalization and Interdependence” to us. Especially we discussed the issue of national defense in Japan. In the 5th period, we welcomed Mr. Hirabayashi Kunihiko, the Director of UNICEF at the Tokyo office and he delivered us the lecture on “Incredible India”. First of all, he explained the outline of India, especially geographical feature, religion and politics. Then he mentioned the health situation in relation to the issue of the regional and economical gap. Finally he emphasized “Social Exclusion” causes child labor and India should change it into “Social Inclusion”. After the seminar, we had dinner with Professor Hasegawa, Mr. Hirabayashi and his daughter. (Mai Nakasendo)
On June 26th 2012, the Peace Building Group and the Development Economic Group made presentations on the two chapters of “UNDERSTANDING PEACEKEEPING”.
In the 4th period, the Peace Building Group explained the Chapter 6: Preventive Deployment. First, the Peace Building Group described how to prevent the occurrence of conflict and what tasks are fit for preventive deployments. Also, they mentioned that the primary goal of peace operations is to prevent conflict in the first place. In addition, conflict prevention chain suggested by Ken Menkhaus and the 6 links in this chain were discussed. Second, they talked about the two real cases of preventive deployment: UNPREDEP in Macedonia and EUFOR RD Congo. According to the presenters, the important aspect with the former mission was the president of Macedonia himself made the request to UN for help. Finally, they mentioned that the reason why there are relatively few examples of preventive deployments is due to the five political challenges and dilemmas. They concluded that the attention and intervention by international organizations is needed and the fast response from these organizations is essential.
In the 5th period, the Development Economic Group presented Chapter 7: Traditional Peacekeeping. First, the Development Economic Group explained the holy trinity: consent, impartiality and minimum use of force. The last conception refers to non-use of force except for self-defense, said Professor Hasegawa. Second, they told that traditional peacekeeping is based on observer mission by the UN. Also, they presented three real cases of traditional peacekeeping missions: UNEF1 in Egypt, UNFICYP in Cyprus and UNMEE in Ethiopia and Eritrea. And finally, Professor Hasegawa mentioned that POC (protection of civilians) originated in R2P (responsibility to protect) is recently focused on. (Minshik KIM)
On 19th June 2012, following presentations made by the Economic Development group, the seminar first discussed how a triple transformation took place in peace operations comprising quantitative, normative and qualitative changes. Following the end of the Cold War, the United Nations began to implement complex operations addressing the causes of intra-state conflicts and transform war-torn societies by fostering human rights and democratic governance. The seminar then studied the recommendations made by the Brahimi Report through improvements in making decisions at UN headquarters and enacting mandates by the Security Council, securing of resources, deploying peacekeepers and carrying out operations robustly. Further reform proposals were presented to the General Assembly by the Secretary-General based on the recommendations of the high level panel on threats and challenges to the international community. The General Assembly then adopted a resolution commonly called the Outcome Document and established a Peacebuilding Commission and a standing police capacity and endorsed the notion of the responsibility to protect (R2P). The United Nations, through adoption of the Capstone Doctrine, also added three principles, credibility, legitimacy and national ownership to its existing principles of consent, impartiality and non-use of force except for self-defense. (Yuna Kitamura)
On 29th May 2012, in the 4th period, the 4 seminar students: Yuuhi Kawase, Kohei Yokota, Mai Nakasendo and Sayaka Yatabe, made presentations on the Chapter 9 of the “Understanding Global Conflict and Cooperation” written by Joseph Nye Jr. In the final chapter, Joseph Nye Jr. introduces a lot of prospect of the new world order; for instance, World Federalism, Functionalism, Regionalism, Ecologism and Cyber-Feudalism. In addition, Nye also mentioned that there are two conflicting ideas to how conflicts in the future will be formed. One side claims the persistent existence of monopoly by the liberals, and the other claims the revelation of the clash of cultural groups once hindered by conflicts of other nature such as proxy war. Furthermore, Ms. Ryoko Iizuka, the former programme manager of the UNDP Myanmar Office, made an insightful lecture entitled “Current Transformation in Myanmar” in the 5th period. First, she referred to the Myanmar’s transiton from military junta to civilian government (President Thein Sein regime) in terms of politics and economy. In additon, she also pointed out the political issues related to democracy under the President Thein Sein regime: for example, whether the government can pursue true democracy, whether the government can meet people’s needs, and whether the government can manage decentralization or not. Finally, she talked about the four UN strategic priorities: (1) to encourage inclusive growth, (2) to increase equitable access to quality social services, (3) to reduce vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change, and (4) to promote good governance and to strengthen democratic institutions and rights. Speaking of good governance, she quoted from the inagural address of President Thein Sein, “The new Government will amend and revoke the existing laws and adopt new laws as necessary to implement the provisions on fundamental rights of citizens or human rights”. (Shogo Yoshida)
On May 22nd 2012, the Human Rights Group made a presentation on Chapter 8 of the “Understanding Global Conflict and Cooperation: an Introduction to Theory and History” by Joseph Nye, Jr. and David Welch. The presenters, Mr.Yuhi Kawase and Ms.Jieun Park explained the history and the characteristics of the information revolution and the changes that it has brought to politics. Also, they explained why terrorists, NGOs, and multinational corporations have emerged.
That presentation was preceded by comments from Ms.Aimi Ezawa on the balance of power in the region, while Mr.Shogo Yoshida spoke on the global public interest. The class discussed how the “digital divide” can be approached from the international level, state level, and individual level.
On the Justice Group presentation, we watched Michael J. Sandel’s video lecture and we discussed Casey Martin’s case study, using Aristotle’s Theory of Justice. Ms.Akiho Terauchi explained his theory; which designates the most suited thing goes to the most suited person. Determining the purpose of an object is a stating point, according to Aristotle’s Theory of Justice.(Eri Iijima)
On 15th May 2012, in the fifth class, we had two presentations. First, Moe Kurisu and Yui Narikawa spoke on globalization and interdependence. They explained primarily the level of globalization, interdepndence, and how petroleum plays a very important role in the world. In the second presentation, Mai Nakasendo and Sayuri Maruyama talked about the ideologies by two famous philosophers, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Afterwards, we watched a DVD that contained the footage from Michael J Sandel’s class on “the conscription, the mercenary or the vountary” and “surrogate birth”.(Aimi Ezawa)
On 8th May 2012, the Human Rights Group made a presentation on chapter 5 and chapter 6 of Understanding Global Conflict and Cooperation: an Introduction to Theory and History by Joseph Nye, Jr. and David Welch. The presenters of chapter 5, Yuko Honda and Yuka Narikawa explained the history of The Cold War in terms of 3 stages and the effect of nuclear weapons played in keeping the Cold War from becoming real war. Then, Daiki Kawabe and Mai Kato on behalf of Mai Uchida presented the main theme of Chapter 6 and explained nationalism as the main cause of international disputes. The students then discussed in four groups the implications of external intervention in internal disputes of a sovereign country. (Jieun Park)