5-1. International Organization

This category contains 16 posts

[IntOrg] The World Bank and Japan (Ms. Mika Iwasaki) (14th November 2012)

 On 14th November 2012, Ms. Mika Iwasaki, an official from the World Bank, visited Hosei University and delivered a lecture on the World Bank and Japan. First she explained the World Bank Group including IBRD and IDA, and their organization. Second, she explained the organizational transition in terms of its institutional structure and its approach to development. The World Bank was established in 1944 for reconstruction of the war-torn countries after the WWⅡ and the priority development agenda have continuously changed since 1950s. Third she talked about the relationship between Japan and the World Bank. Japan received loans from the World Bank during 1950s and 1960s. Before Japan finished paying back in 1967, Japan started supporting developing countries through IDA, one of the arms of the World Bank. Now Japan is the second largest shareholder of the World Bank. Fourth, its organization reforms such as governance and voice were explained. Finally she showed the operational results from the World Bank’s latest annual report. (Yui Narikawa)

[IntOrg] Brief explanation of Millennium Development Goals and Mid-Term Examination of MDGs (Professor Hasegawa) (7th November 2012)

 On 7th November 2012, Professor Hasegawa briefly explained the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). He delineated the relevance of eight MDG goals; Japan’s contributions and the roles of international organizations to help achieve MDG goals respectively. Then he gave the students a MDGs related homework for submission on December 5th. After that, the mid-term examination about MDGs was held. (Yasuki Uchiyama)

[IntOrg] The UN and Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN (Mr. Kazuhiro Kuno) (10th October 2012)

 On 10th October, 2012, Mr. Kazuhiro Kuno, the director of the UN Planning and Administration Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, gave a lecture on the UN and Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN. First he illustrated the role of the UN and the changes of the UN functions over years. The UN covers almost all global issues in the world as the only comprehensive and universal international organization. Secondly he talked about issues in the 21st century and reform of the UN according to the background of changing realities of international society, including globalization and the advance in information technology. In these changing environments, the UN has been tackling such issues as environment, infection, refugee, climate change and so forth. Most acute problems the international society is faced with at this moment can be characterized as “internal problems” such as ethnic problems, issues related to internally displaced persons (IDPs), democracy. He noted that the legitimacy of the UN activities in these fields is increasing. Thirdly he explained Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN. Japan has been consistently promoting its diplomacy in the fields of disarmament, human rights, and fragile states assistance. Japan also has been contributing to the activities of the UN by means of human resources and budget as well. Japan’s multilateral diplomacy has been conducted parallel to its bilateral diplomacy. Finally after his lecture, he responded to some questions and comments from students. (Yuhi Kawase)

[IntOrg] The role of International Organization for Migration and Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Ms. Naoko Hashimoto) (3rd October 2012)

 On 3rd October 2012, Ms. Naoko Hashimoto, the Programme Manager in IOM Tokyo Office, gave the students an informative lecture of two organizations: IOM and UNHCR. She emphasized the importance of IRO (International Refugee Organization) in understanding the births of IOM and UNHCR during 1950s. Firstly, she explained the activity of IOM. IOM primary focuses on promotion of humane and orderly migration in a way to benefit both migrants, including refugees, and sending/receiving societies. It has a lot of local offices so they can work in every corner effectively around the world. Secondly, she talked about UNHCR. She focused on the legal definition of refugees and how the activities of UNHCR have evolved during the past 60 years. Finally, she explained the relation between IOM and UNHCR and explained about Refugee Resettlement, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), climate change and migrants/refugees, and development and IOM / UNHCR. (Misa Komine)

[IntOrg] Introductory Lecture on the Role of International Organizations in Economic, Social, Development and Humanitarian Assistance (Professor Hasegawa) (26th September 2012)

 On 26th September 2012, in his introductory lecture on international organizations in the second term, Professor Hasegawa spoke first about the functional growth of the international organizations’ roles in economic, social, development and humanitarian affairs. He delineated the functional roles played by such organizations as ITU, ILO, UNEP and UNHCHR in fulfilling specific needs of the international community in telecommunication, labor standards, environmental and human rights. He also explained the special status and roles of IAEA and UN OCHA. IAEA is the organization that promotes peaceful use of atomic energy and carries out measures that prevent military application of such energy. IAEA has a unique methodology for election of its 35 Board Member States. Thirteen members are designated by the previous and 22 are elected on a geographical basis. Council Professor Hasegawa mentioned that UN OCHA is the central office that coordinates the activities of UN agencies and international NGOs in support of the victims of natural disaster and conflicts. The important roles are promotion of consistency and effectiveness. Secondly, Professor Hasegawa explained about a series of United Nations reform initiatives taken by then Secretary-General Kofi Anna in 1997 and by the General Assembly in 2005. He also mentioned the Delivering as One proposal made by a High Level Panel in 2006. (Daiki Kawabe)

[IntOrg] The Roles and Activities of International Organizations in Economy, Social Development and Humanitarian Aid (Professor Hasegawa) (19th September 2012)

 On 19th September 2012, Professor Hasegawa gave a lecture on the roles and activities of international organizations in economy, social development and humanitarian aid. First, he returned the students their previous term exam results and provided them with explanations. Some students read their own answers on essay questions to the class. Second, he explained the class plan for the fall semester. He then continued to explain the relations of international organizations and 11 funds and programs established by the General Assembly and 15 UN Specialized Agencies that reported to the Economic and Social Council. He categorized them in term of their origins, functions and roles. He noted the political factors that influenced the conduct of international organizations. (Yuko Honda)

[IntOrg] End-of-Semester Lecture (Professor Hasegawa) (11th July 2012)

 On 11th July 2012, in his the end-of-semester lecture, Professor Hasegawa reviewed first the changing roles of international organizations.Then he introduced the theories of Functionalism and Neo-Functionalism developed by David Mitrany and Ernst Haas respectively. Second he reviewed the birth and growth of international organization. He explained the causes for and lessons learned from the collapse of the League of Nation. Professor Hasegawa then presented a practical overview of the key issues arising in the relationship between international law and national law. Most of the countries accorded the highest authority to their national constitutions and tried to accommodate international treaties into their domestic legal system once their legislatures have ratified them. Professor Hasegawa explained the differences in how respective countries have dealt with the international legal agreements. In case of Japan, its constitution in article 98 stipulates the following: (1) this Constitution shall be the supreme law of the nation and no law, ordinance, imperial rescript or other act of government or part thereof, contrary to the provisions hereof, shall have legal force or validity; (2) the treaties concluded by Japan and established laws of nations shall be faithfully observed. Finally professor Hasegawa explained the need for the Japanese to play a more active role in international organizations. (Yuhi Kawase)

[IntOrg] Changing Roles of NATO (Director Mr. Yoshizaki) (4th July 2012)

 On 4th July 2012, Mr. Tomonori Yoshizaki, Director of the Security Studies Department of the National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS) of the Ministry of Defense, delivered a lecture on the evolving roles of international organizations from the viewpoint of collective security. First, he explained the collective security mechanism and three criteria of effective collective security, namely certainly, utility and inclusivity. Secondly, he provided a detailed explanation about the origin, growth and transformation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). As its mission goal, NATO started with the collective defense of the North Atlantic region during the Cold War. It then transformed itself with the expansion of its membership from 12 to 28 countries many of which are from the Eastern Europe and with the addition of providing security to not only its members but also countries suffering from humanitarian and other crisis. Professor Yoshizaki noted in summary that NATO had acquired a strategic nature in its crisis management by undertaking military interventions of coercive diplomacy and adopting a comprehensive approach aimed at protecting civilians in crisis, stabilization and security sector reform. The areas and countries in which NATO has undertaken military operations included Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Libya. Professor Yoshizaki also explained the difference between Libyan and Syrian situations and the implications of the establishment of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). (Yuko Honda)

[IntOrg] Noblemaire and Flemming Principles Governing Working Conditions UN Employees (Professor Hasegawa) (6th June 2012)

 On 6th June 2012, Professor Hasegawa lectured on two principles that governed the conditions of international civil servants working in the UN common system. The Noblemaire Principle set a salary scale of UN staff based on the highest paid national civil service and that the US federal civil service had been used as the comparator civil service. The second principle called the Flemming Principle stipulated that local staff of the UN system should be paid “best prevailing local rates” and according to “best prevailing local conditions.” Professor Hasegawa then explained in details the salaries and allowances of the UN’s the terms of employment. The salaries consisted of basically professional and general service. Their levels are decided on the competence and experience. The amount of salary is adjusted on the location of staff assignment post. UN staff also benefitted from education, dependency and other grants as well as annual, sick, maternity and other leaves. Professor Hasegawa analyzed the implications of UN staff benefits and allowances in terms of wider doctrines such as liberal and social democracy. Finally, he asked the students about their views on the applications of the Noblemaire and Flemming principles, which the students found reasonable and attractive particularly for female workers. The students were then given five minutes to write down their views. (Yasuki Uchiyama)

[IntOrg] International Public Service System (Professor Hasegawa) (30th May 2012)

 On 30th May 2012, Professor Hasegawa spoke on the international civil service system centered the United Nations common system. First, he explained how the international civil service emerged with the establishment of the League of Nations. The system was designed to enable international civil servants to maintain their highest standard, independence and impartiality. The Noblemaire Principle was established to provide the best working conditions and compensations to recruit most qualified personnel. Secondly, he explained the structure of United Nations secretariat consisting of the Secretary-General and his staff, including seven different kinds of contracts given to staff and personnel such as regular staff and technical cooperation personnel, etc. He noted dramatic increase in the ratio of women in staff composition as a result of gender equality policy adopted in the 1990’s. Finally, Professor Hasegawa talked about the recruitment criteria particularly competencies, academic qualification, professional expertise and proficiency in working languages. English has become the common language for use in most of the international organizations while French or Spanish is used as the second language.(Daiki Kawabe)

[IntOrg] Financial Basis and Resource in International Organizations (Ms. Akari Kano) (23rd May 2012)

 Today, Ms. Akari Kano gave students a lecture about the financial basis and resource in international organizations. The UN budget is determined in accordance to the principle of equal sovereignty. Member nations pursue their own interests, so the budget is said to have a political aspect. The UN has been operating on a smaller budget than generally believed. Recently, the UN came to deal with non-traditional security issues, so the budget has been increasing. There are some committees in the UN related to the budget, and they support the General Assembly. Financial resources of the UN are various. Commonly known are the expenses shared by member states of which Japan is the second largest. A share of expenses will be assessed by a certain equation, and this has been in line with world affairs. The UN is faced with financial difficulties because member nations do not pay their share of expenses. The US is falling behind payments totaling four hundred million. There are various reasons why member nations do not pay their share of expenses. Introducing international solidarity tax may be mentioned as a means to solve this matter. Japan has played an important role in the UN finance. However, Japan should not only make a financial contribution, but should also take leadership in terms of other areas. (Moe Kurisu)

[IntOrg] UN Security Council Reform (Mr.Umid and Professor Hasegawa) (16th May 2012)

 On 16th May 2012, Mr. Makhmudov Umid, a graduate student from Hosei University, made a presentation on the implications of the Security Council reform. One of the reasons why the Security Council needs reform is that the number of permanent members and non-permanent members are not sufficient to reflect the present condition of the world. Japan has attempted to be a permanent member along with India, Brazil and Germany. The failure of UN members to reach a consensus is their preoccupation with their national interests. According to Mr. Umid, Japan has diplomatic disputes with China, Russia, South Korea and so on. The Japanese tasks for the future are to take a leadership on the world stage, to resolve the disputes with the permanent members and to actively grapple with the reform of the Security Council.

 Professor Hasegawa then explained in detail the reform process which started in September 2003 when Kofi Atta Annan, the Secretary-General of the UN at the time, proposed the establishment of a High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. Since its establishment in November, the Panel addressed three questions: (1) “what is the new threat that the international society faces?” (2) “what can be taken as a group against the new threats?” and (3) “how should the structure of the UN be reformed?” With regard to the Security Council, the Panel considered imperative to increase its effectiveness and credibility by bringing into the Security Council those countries that contribute most in terms of decision making and resources. The Secretary-General reflecting the recommendations of the Panel then presented in his report, “In Larger Freedom”, two Models A and B. Professor Hasegawa also explained other suggestions and proposals made by Group of Four, Consensus Group, African Union, the United States and the LDCs. Intensive and extensive negotiations took place in 2005 but due to the lack of a promising prospect for adoption of any of the proposal, no voting took place on them and the Security Council reform was abandoned temporarily. Professor Hasegawa noted that the Secretary-General’s proposal reflected the rationale for a more effective way to manage the international security, while the member states pursued primarily their immediate national interest. The Westphalia world of anarchy still prevailed and the era of effective global governance was yet to come. (Yui Narikawa)

[IntOrg] The Function of International Labor Organization as an international organization (Professor Yozo Yokota) (9th May 2012)

 On 9th May 2012, Professor Yozo Yokota visited Hosei Universiy and delivered a lecture on International Labour Organisation as a unique international organization. First, he explained the history, role and importance of the International Labor Organization (ILO). Second, he noted the tripartite system of representation and decision making, the role for international standards setting and the supervisory function as the key roles played by ILO. Finally, Professor Yokota said that the ILO was a model of other International organizations. However, he also mentioned that it was required to reflect the changes taking place in its works. (Minako Ishikawa)

[IntOrg] New International Organizational Structure in Post-W.W.II (Professor Hasegawa) (25th April 2012)

 On 25th April 2012, Professor Hasegawa gave a lecture on the causes of First and Second World War and the changes incorporated in the principles, purposes and role of the international organizations. Firstly he explained that the failure of the collective security system adopted by the League of Nations is the lesson from its collapse. He then referred to various chapters and articles of the United Nations Charter. He also referred to several international conferences that prepared the establishment of the United Nations system and the Bretton Woods institutions. Professor Hasegawa explained three reforms adopted in 2005, such as the upgrading of the Human Rights Council and the International Peacebuilding Commission. He also mentioned key contributions made by Secretary-General particularly Boutros-Ghali and Kofi Annan under whom Professor Hasegawa served in peacekeeping missions from early 1990’s to 2006. (Sayaka Yatabe)

[IntOrg] Implications of international laws and treaties to sovereign nation states and the collapse of the League of Nations (Professor Hasegawa) (18th April 2012)

 On 18th April 2012, Professor Hasegawa made a detailed comparative analysis of the legal implications of international laws and treaties for sovereign nation states. He explained the legal status of an international organization and the relationship between an international law and a national law and noted the superior position given to either national or international laws by respective countries. In his lecture today, Professor Hasegawa also identified the three causal factors for the birth of an international organization. Particularly, he indicated that the desire to avoid any recurrence of war was one of the main reasons to create an international organization. He then explained how the League of Nations was established and identified lessons learned from its collapse. (Risa Kato)

[IntOrg] International Organizations -Their Birth and Growth- (Professor Hasegawa)(11th April 2012)

 On 11th April 2012, in his first lecture on international organizations, Professor Hasegawa first explained the purpose of the class and its annual plan. He emphasized the importance of being consciously aware of how the birth and roles of the international organizations are viewed from different perspectives. First, he explained about the definitions of “International Organizations” which consists of a narrow sense and a wide sense. He examined the causes and structures of various international organizations including inter-governmental organizations (IGO), civil society organizations (CSO) and non-governmental organizations (NGO). Secondly, he explained the roles and functions of these international organizations. Thirdly, he provided an overview of how the international organizations increased their number and roles in the Westphalia world that has been dominated by sovereign nation states as main actors. In doing so, he referred to differences that existed about “nation” or “country” and “states”. (Misa Komine)

[IntOrg]2012年1月10日 国際機構論 期末試験

 On 10th January 2012, the final-term examination was held in the class of the international organization. The examination was made up of the true-false questions and the essay questions. In this test, we recognized again our understanding and knowledge from the lecture by Professor Hasegawa and the guest-speakers. Moreover, we wrote down our opinions how the United Nations should reform in order to work more effectively. (Saki Sakamoto)

[IntOrg]2011年12月20日 総括講義 -“Delivering As One”に向けて- (長谷川祐弘教授)

 On December 20, Professor Hasegawa recapitulated some of the salient points that emerged during various lectures delivered this year. First of all, he asked a basic question: “What are the reasons that nation states create international organizations that would restrict their independence and sovereignty?” He then reviewed the historical context in which international organizations have been created and also the changing relationships between international organizations and sovereign states. He also mentioned the changes that took place in the roles, policies and structures of international organizations since the World War I and II. Next, he explained how the United Nations and other international organizationshave been brought into the concept of “Delivering As One” to increase its effectiveness through adoptionof such programming tools as CCA, UNDAF, PRSP and ISF. In his concluding remarks,Professor Hasegawa identified some of the issues that will be the key tasks ofconcern for international organizations. (Yuka Hirakawa)

[IntOrg]November 29th “Overview of the World Bank and development reform and future prospects” (Ms. Mika Iwasaki)

 On 29th November 2011, Ms. Mika Iwasaki, a senior communications officer of the World Bank Tokyo office, delivered a lecture. Firstly, she introduced the outlines of the World Bank group such as IBRD and IDA, and the background of the establishment of the World Bank. Then She explained that the World Bank financed Japan in 1950’s and 1960’s. Japan utilized these finance for making power plants and improving infrastructures. She also mentioned the development paradigm shifts and the new approaches as the examples of multi-sector approaches to health. Finally, she referred to the global priority such as agricultures and climate changes. (Mai Kato)

[IntOrg] Mid-Term Test (November 22nd)

 On November 22nd 2011, the mid-term test of the lecture on the international organization was held in the S407 room. Professor Hasegawa set the essay-type questions on especially the Millennium Development Goals. Through this exam, we recognized the present activities and status of member states, non-governmental organizations and international organizations for the Millennium Development Goals. (Keiki Takemasa)

[IntOrg]2011年11月15日 国連人権理事会の制度構築とUPR(外務省人権人道課長 阿部康次様)

 On 15th November 2011, Mr. Kouji Abe, Director of the Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs Division of the Foreign Policy Bureau of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, lectured on the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). Firstly, He introduced several treaties to protect human rights as universal values. Then he explained the background of the UNHRC and the difference between the UNHRC and the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) which is an ancestor of the UNHRC. In his explanation on the institution-building of the UNHRC, he mentioned the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) and the special procedure in a particular country or theme. And he talked about the Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) as a department of human rights in United Nations Secretariat. Finally, in terms of the diplomacy of human rights in Japan, he referred to the importance of dialogues and cooperation on the basis of the positive linkage. (Yukihiko Masuda)

[IntOrg]2011年11月1日 地域国際機構としてのASEANの進展と課題(長谷川祐弘教授)

 On 1st November 2011, Professor Hasegawa lectured on the status and challenges of the ASEAN with an emphasis on the economic integration. Firstly, he explained the structures and institutions of the ASEAN, and the outcome of various conferences. And he indicated the ASEAN Free Trade Area Agreement concluded in 1993 and the Common Effective Preferential Tariff agreed in 1992 as trends of ASEAN for economic integration. He also mentioned in details the challenges faced by ASEAN. Finally, he explained the differences between Economic Partnership Agreement and Free Trade Agreement in terms of the economic relationships between ASEAN and Japan. (Shogo Yoshida)

[IntOrg]2011年10月25日 2010年度MDGs報告書を通じて確認するMDGsの実現可能性(長谷川祐弘教授)

 On October 25, in the international organization class, Prof. Hasegawa gave his lecture on the theme of ‘Millennium Development Goals part 2’. He used the Millennium Development Goals Report 2010 to assess a progress towards the MDGs. By analyzing data and graphs in this report, he ascertained whether the goals are achievable and what are the obstacles. Also, he emphasized that you should not trust the data blindly unless you verify it. finally, he explained the contribution of Japan toward achieving the MDGs. (Dona Jung)

[IntOrg] 2011年10月18日 ILOのディーセント・ワークを全ての人に(ILO駐日事務所代表 長谷川真一様)

 On 18th October 2011, Mr. Hasegawa Shinichi, Director of ILO Office in Japan, gave us a lecture on “ILO and Asia, Decent Work”, and explained activities of ILO toward natural disasters. In particular, Mr. Hasegawa mentioned ILO coping with Aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, also he explained ILO is technical assistance to some countries such as Sri Lanka. And as he lecture, emphasized “Decent Work for All” based on setting international labor standard, monitoring system of the standard, and international technical cooperation program. After exposition of “Decent Work for All”, Mr. Hasegawa commented his personal opinions about “foreign labors”, “immigrants”, and “Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Actions toward the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour”. Moreover, Mr. Hasegawa expounded changes of global labor market with china economic growth. Finally, he mentioned the importance of 4 strategic objectives of Decent Work by ILO and also about Decent Work of Japan in the future. (Minshik KIM)

[IntOrg] (11 Oct 2011) Hasegawa: “Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri Explained Timor-Leste Efforts to Achieve MDGs at UN General Assembly 2005”

 On 11 October 2011, in his class on international organizations, Professor Hasegawa delivered a lecture on the theme of “Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)”. In explaining how he helped the Government of Timor-Leste in achieving MDGs, he introduced a video showing then Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri addressing the Special General Assembly of the United Nations in 2005. Professor Hasegawa noted that in spite of setbacks encountered during the financial and economic downturn in the world as a whole, moved towards reducing poverty by half. By referring to the latest MDG 2011 Report, he mentioned the Secretary-General declared that the global poverty rate will have been reduced to 15 percent by year 2015 which represented a substantial reduction and far below the target level of 23 percent. Professor Hasegawa also noted that the main obstacle to achieving MDG targets was inequity among income groups as well as those in urban and rural areas.

[IntOrg] 2011年10月4日 UNICEFの目指すものとは(UNICEF東京事務所代表 平林国彦様)

 On the 4th October 2011, Mr. Hirabayashi Kunihiko, Director of UNICEF at the Tokyo office, gave a lecture on equity and child survival. Firstly, he explained UNICEF’s role and current priorities, then showed several evidences related to the current trend of reduction of child mortality and equity issues. Finally, he defined the difference between equity and equality and lectured how UNICEF practices the equity-focused approach. (Terauchi Akiho)

[IntOrg] 2011年9月27日 国連統合に向けての各機関の取り組み(長谷川祐弘教授)

 On September 27, 2011, in his class on international organizations, Professor Hasegawa delivered a lecture on the theme of “Towards Greater Integration of International Development Assistance Programs”. Firstly, Professor Hasegawa introduced the initiatives taken by the former Secretary-General Kofi Annan in establishing the UN Development Group in 1997. And he lectured about the Common Country Assessment (CCA), UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and Integrated Strategic Framework (ISF). Professor Hasegawa then explained how to write the project documents and stressed the need for monitoring how project funds are used after their approval. (Eri Iijima)

[IntOrg] 2011年9月20日 開発・人道分野での国際機関の役割と活動(長谷川祐弘教授)

 On September 20, the second semester started with Prof. Hasegawa’s lecture on international organizations.
First, he explained the relationship among different UN funds, programs and agencies in terms of their roles and activities. He then provided background information on how the United Nations systems try to improve the efficiency and effectiveness through improving a coordination and integration. Finally, he mentioned ‘delivering as one’ as a major effort to bring together all UN agencies in the field. (Aimi Ezawa)

【国際機構論】2011年7月12日 国家間の統合理論に関する解説(長谷川教授)

 On 12th July 12 2011, Prof. Hasegawa lectured on “Integrated theory between nations” and “European Union”. He explained that “integrated theory between nations” is made by four principles. These are “Federalism”, “Functionalism”, “Neo-Functionalism”, and “Liberal Intergovernmentalism”. He lectured on these principles in a lot of examples to teach it plainly. Then, he explained European Union. This topic was composed of “international or supranational organization?” and “the European Union has gone through many incarnations since its origins fifty-plus years ago”. He explained the history of European Union and European treaties’ history. (Soichiro Hirabayashi)

【国際機構論】2011年7月5日 グローバルガバナンスにおける国連の役割とは?(元国連事務次長 明石康様)

 On 5th July 2011, Mr. Yasushi Akashi, a former United Nations Under-Secretary- General, gave a lecture on “the role of the United Nations in global governance” in the Sky hall. At first, he compared the Suez crisis with the Hungarian uprising of 1956, and stated the need to recognize that there were both the brighter side and the darker side in the record of the United Nations. Second, he referred to the great earthquake disaster in east Japan, and pointed out that Japan received heart-warming support from many countries because Japan had positively contributed to the global community. We should particularly remember that the support included not only government-level assistance, but also citizen level support from many people expressed through the Internet. He explained the United Nations in detail. He told us the importance of post-conflict peace-building, reduction of poverty and eradication of preschoolers, contained in the “United Nations Millennium Declaration” which was decided by the special general assembly in 2000. He also referred to the Outcome Document of 2005. Finally, he mentioned the overall view of the global community, in which problems and challenges are abundant in many areas. He ended his lecture with an emphasis that it was important not to lose sight of main currents in the world which show progress towards global governance. (Mai Kato)

【国際機構論】2011年6月28日 国際刑事裁判の変遷と現状(国連大学サスティナビリティと平和研究所 二村まどか様)

 On 28th June, Ms. Madoka Futamura gave us a lecture. She works at the United Nations University as an academic program officer. She is specialized in the International Relations, Peace-building and Transitional Justice. She talked about international criminal tribunals and courts, which copes with the core crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide and the crimes of aggression. The definition of the accused is a person who has the most responsibility for the core crimes. She also introduced the difference between the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the International Court of Justice (ICJ). The ICJ is one of the organizations of the United Nations. It has a responsibility to solve conflicts not between individuals but between countries. (Saki Sakamoto)

【国際機構論】2011年6月21日 国連成果文書に関する分析(長谷川教授)

 On 21 June 2011 Professor Hasegawa delivered a lecture on the outcome document. The General Assembly adopted 2005 World Summit Outcome on 16th September 2005. Earlier in 2005, Secretary General Kofi Annan presented a progress report “In Larger Freedom” to the UN General Assembly on 21 March 2005. This report is divided into four main sections: “Freedom from Want”, “Freedom from Fear”, “Freedom to Live in Dignity” and “Strengthening the United Nations”. Anan proposed including this report in The General Assembly adopted 2005 World Summit Outcome in the United Nations General Assembly. As a conclusion of today’s lecture, Professor Hasegawa explained the meaning of main items mentioned in the Outcome Document. They included value and principle, development, peace and collective security, human rights and rule of law and strengthening the United Nations. (Keiki Takemasa)

【国際機構論】2011年6月14日 国際公務員制度とは?(長谷川教授)

 On the 14th of June 2011, Professor Hasegawa lectured on the international civil servant system, presenting the rights and responsibilities of an international civil servant, and the UN common system. Prof. Hasegawa specifically focused on the responsibilities of the United Nations Secretary-General, which are founded upon the UN Charter as well as each of the former eight UN Secretary-Generals as Chief Administrative Officer. Prof. Hasegawa also touched on internationality, independence, formation, classification, standing, employment methods and administrative duties of an international civil servant. Among them, Prof. Hasegawa expounded on the meaning of Noblemaire Principle and explained the significance of Article100 [Internationality of the Officer] and Article 101 [Responsibility of the Officer]. Moreover, Prof. Hasegawa explained the functional classification of international organization, servants working in the UN system (both professional and general servants), and the working condition of a UN servant – his or her base floor salary, post adjustment, education grant, and so on. The enrollment method of international organization concluded Prof. Hasegawa’s lecture, in which he emphasized the need to understand and increase competency, particularly the importance of communication skills. (Minshik KIM)

【国際機構論】2011年6月7日 国際機関の財政的基盤と資金源に関する分析(国連大学高等研究所職員 狩野明香理様)

 On 7 June 2011, Ms. Kanou Akari who works at the United Nations University lectured on “Financing international Organizations”. First, she explained the importance of paying attention to finance and fund of the United Nations. Second, she explained the procedure, the part of committee, the source of revenue of assessed contribution and voluntary contribution on the outline of making up a budget. Third, she explained the cause of financial difficulties of the United Nations, the problem of unpaid money, and the international taxation. Finally, she explained the validity of share rate in regular budget of the United Nations and peace-keeping operations. And she explained suggestion to more fair calculating formula. (Yuna Kitamura)

【国際機構論】2011年5月31日 国際法と国内法の関係と意義とは?(長谷川教授)

 On 31 May 2011, Professor Hasegawa lectured first on the relationship between national and international laws. He explained the precedence given to national laws and the validity accorded to international laws by certain countries. Prof. Hasegawa provided his views on the need for integration, unification and consistency that should prevail in the relationship between national and international laws. Secondly, Prof. Hasegawa lectured on the growth and expansion of the United Nations and provided a detailed explanation about the representation issue for China. Finally, Prof. Hasegawa brought up the subject of“ UN reform”, and talked about the issues involved in the Security Council reform and the proposal made by former Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2005. (Yukihiko Masuda)

【国際機構論】2011年5月24日 ウェストファリア体制と国際機構の意義とは?(長谷川教授)

 Today on 24 May 2011, Prof. Hasegawa lectured on the birth and collapse of the League of Nations. The League of Nations was founded on the basis of the President Wilson’s Fourteen Points, but the United States didn’t join the League of Nations from the first because of United States’ isolations. Moreover, Japan, one of permanent members, withdrew after the Manchurian Incident. From these, the League of Nations lost its raison d’etre and authority and collapsed. Prof. Hasegawa explained the above-mentioned situations with the introduction to the Report of the Commission of Enquiry into the Sino-Japanese. (Shogo Yoshida)

【国際機構論】2011年5月17日 国際機構と国際法の関連性(日本国際連合学会理事長 横田洋三様)

On May 17th, Mr. Yozo Yokota came to the lecture of International Organizations Theory as a guest speaker. Under the theme of “International Organizations and International Law”, Mr. Yokota explained with real example that the foundation, purpose, authority and activities of the International Organizations are totally based on the International Law, however, formation of the International Organizations made change of the International Law too. In addition, there is a problem on the relationship between the National Law and the International Law, so Mr. Yokota said that we need think the International Organizations as premises. (Eri Iijima)

【国際機構論】2011年5月10日 今年度講義導入(長谷川教授)

On May 10, the lecture of International Organizations Theory has started. First Prof. Hasegawa recommended that we should have own awareness of the issue and make a purpose of this lecture clear. Then he introduced an outline of this lecture.
Today’s main theme was “The origin and evolution and role of international organizations” and Prof. Hasegawa explained the activity of UN with his own experience.Furthermore he proposed that Japanese government should establish a committee organized by international expert of nuclear power. (Mai Nakasendo)

【国際機構論】1月28日(金) 国際機構論期末テスト


【国際機構論】1月11日(火) 長谷川教授による今期最後の講義が行われました。



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