5. Hosei Lectures

This category contains 21 posts

[Kurosawa seminar] The Ambassador of Russian Federation to Japan holds Dialogue with Hosei students (16 May 2013)

 On 16 May 2013, His Excellency Ambassador Evgeny Vladimirovich Afanasiev of Russian Federation to Japan visited Hosei University and held a dialogue with professors and students. The ambassador explained the Russian foreign policy towards East Asia.
 After opening remarks made by Mr. Fukuda, Ambassador Afanasiev mentioned the historical, cultural, political and economic relationship between Japan and Russia. In his speech, he emphasized the significance of cooperating each other for the prosperity of each society. He regarded the recent relationship between both countries as of optimum importance, and put an emphasis on improving the understanding and cooperation between each other. Ambassador Afanasiev also made a reference to the negotiation of peace treaty between Russia and Japan, and he referred to a progress to be made by the leaders of both countries as the significant goal for the development of relationship of two countries.
 At the end of the symposium, we had a comments and questions session moderated by Professor Sukehiro Hasegawa, in which three professors commented, Professors Nobuto Shimotomai, Andrei Ivanovich Kravtsevich and Satoru Kurosawa. As a conclusion, Professor Hasegawa referred to the importance of appreciating various cognitions held by those concerned when it comes to solving territorial disputes. He introduced three indispensable ways to solve some territorial problems through (1) the role of ICJ; (2) a shelving of the determination and (3) the settlement of issues through dividing the territories equally as referred to by President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin. In addition, Professor Hasegawa pointed out the importance of grasping different opinions held by both sides on territorial disputes. (Keiki Takemasa)

[Global Governance] Symposium “Humanitarian Diplomacy: Diplomats Who Saved Jewish People” (4th December 2012)

 On December 4th, an international symposium on “Humanitarian Diplomacy: Diplomats Who Saved Jewish People” was held at Hosei University. First of all, President Toshio Masuda gave an opening address. Then, Mr. Ulf SÖRMRK, Minister-Counsellor of the Kingdom of Sweden, Mr. Peleg-Pablo LEWI, Acting Ambassador of Israel, and Mr. István GERELYES, Minister-counsellor of Hungary, made the audience welcoming remarks. After that, Ms. Fumiko ISHIOKA, Representative of the Tokyo Holocaust Education Resource Center, and Professor Hasegawa gave them keynote speeches. Ms. Ishioka told them about the accomplishments of Mr. Raoul Wallenberg and their significance and Professor Hasegawa indicated the accomplishments of Mr. Sugihara Chiune and insistence on humanitarian diplomacy and global justice in the context of the Westphalia world of nation states of which concern has remained national security and interest. Various issues and opinions were then expressed by three panelists: Mr. Masaaki SHIRAISHI, Deputy Director Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, Professor Mikiko ETO, Department of Politics, Faculty of Law, and Dr. Vesselin POPOVSKI, Senior Academic Programme Officer of the United Nations University. The discussion became lively and heated at a time. After panel discussion, a few participants made comments and asked questions. At the end of the discussion session, Professor Hasegawa a summary of views expressed and Professor Yoshiro Fukuda, Hosei University Executive Vice President, gave closing remarks. (Moe Kurisu)

[IntOrg] The World Bank and Japan (Ms. Mika Iwasaki) (14th November 2012)

 On 14th November 2012, Ms. Mika Iwasaki, an official from the World Bank, visited Hosei University and delivered a lecture on the World Bank and Japan. First she explained the World Bank Group including IBRD and IDA, and their organization. Second, she explained the organizational transition in terms of its institutional structure and its approach to development. The World Bank was established in 1944 for reconstruction of the war-torn countries after the WWⅡ and the priority development agenda have continuously changed since 1950s. Third she talked about the relationship between Japan and the World Bank. Japan received loans from the World Bank during 1950s and 1960s. Before Japan finished paying back in 1967, Japan started supporting developing countries through IDA, one of the arms of the World Bank. Now Japan is the second largest shareholder of the World Bank. Fourth, its organization reforms such as governance and voice were explained. Finally she showed the operational results from the World Bank’s latest annual report. (Yui Narikawa)

[IntOrg] Brief explanation of Millennium Development Goals and Mid-Term Examination of MDGs (Professor Hasegawa) (7th November 2012)

 On 7th November 2012, Professor Hasegawa briefly explained the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). He delineated the relevance of eight MDG goals; Japan’s contributions and the roles of international organizations to help achieve MDG goals respectively. Then he gave the students a MDGs related homework for submission on December 5th. After that, the mid-term examination about MDGs was held. (Yasuki Uchiyama)

[Global Governance] International Law and Global Governance (Professor Yozo Yokota) (16th October 2012)

 On 16th October 2012, Professor Yozo Yokota gave a stimulating lecture on “International Law and Global Governance”. Professor Yokota had taught international law at Chuo University, University of Tokyo and International Christian University for over forty years and currently serves as President of the Center for Human Rights Education and Training, Chairperson of the ILO Committee of Experts and President of Japan Association for United Nations Studies. He began his lecture by giving his definition of “Global Governance”. He stated: “Global governance is an ability of various responsible actors to address and manage global issues adequately in order to ensure safety, health, wellbeing and meaning life to mankind.” He further analyzed the three main concepts of this definition, namely, “actors”, “global issues” and “adequacy of addressing and management”. He then explained the meaning of “international law”. According to Professor Yokota, “international law is a system of law to regulate the relationship between States, international organizations, individuals, civil society organizations, enterprises and other actors in the world community.” He further pointed out that, while international law has contributed to ensure global governance in the past, there are still serious limitations such as lack of provisions and insufficiency of enforcement. He concluded that, in order to strengthen the role of international law to promote good governance, more efforts are needed to make better use of the provision of Article 13, paragraph 1(a), of the UN Charter, which reads: “encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification.” (Misa Komine)

[IntOrg] The UN and Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN (Mr. Kazuhiro Kuno) (10th October 2012)

 On 10th October, 2012, Mr. Kazuhiro Kuno, the director of the UN Planning and Administration Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, gave a lecture on the UN and Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN. First he illustrated the role of the UN and the changes of the UN functions over years. The UN covers almost all global issues in the world as the only comprehensive and universal international organization. Secondly he talked about issues in the 21st century and reform of the UN according to the background of changing realities of international society, including globalization and the advance in information technology. In these changing environments, the UN has been tackling such issues as environment, infection, refugee, climate change and so forth. Most acute problems the international society is faced with at this moment can be characterized as “internal problems” such as ethnic problems, issues related to internally displaced persons (IDPs), democracy. He noted that the legitimacy of the UN activities in these fields is increasing. Thirdly he explained Japan’s diplomacy towards the UN. Japan has been consistently promoting its diplomacy in the fields of disarmament, human rights, and fragile states assistance. Japan also has been contributing to the activities of the UN by means of human resources and budget as well. Japan’s multilateral diplomacy has been conducted parallel to its bilateral diplomacy. Finally after his lecture, he responded to some questions and comments from students. (Yuhi Kawase)

[IntOrg] The role of International Organization for Migration and Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Ms. Naoko Hashimoto) (3rd October 2012)

 On 3rd October 2012, Ms. Naoko Hashimoto, the Programme Manager in IOM Tokyo Office, gave the students an informative lecture of two organizations: IOM and UNHCR. She emphasized the importance of IRO (International Refugee Organization) in understanding the births of IOM and UNHCR during 1950s. Firstly, she explained the activity of IOM. IOM primary focuses on promotion of humane and orderly migration in a way to benefit both migrants, including refugees, and sending/receiving societies. It has a lot of local offices so they can work in every corner effectively around the world. Secondly, she talked about UNHCR. She focused on the legal definition of refugees and how the activities of UNHCR have evolved during the past 60 years. Finally, she explained the relation between IOM and UNHCR and explained about Refugee Resettlement, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), climate change and migrants/refugees, and development and IOM / UNHCR. (Misa Komine)

[Global Governance] Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Embassy of Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste holds Dialogue with Hosei students (2nd October 2012)

 On 2nd October, 2012, Mr. Isilio Antonio de Fatima Coelho da Silva, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Embassy of Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, visited Hosei University, and gave his lecture as the third class of the global governance. The theme was “Reconstruction and state building in Timor-Leste: its accomplish, progress and vision for future”. At first, the ambassador explained the civil war of the 90s, and emphasized two causes, namely, decolonization and the Cold War. Concretely, decolonization was premature for Timor-Leste of the day since the government lost the adequate capacity, and the struggle for power between the United States and the Soviet Union also embroiled it in the dispute. Thus, these two factors provoked the civil war. And then, the ambassador mentioned the United Nations peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations. With referring to the case of Timor-Leste, all attendance, including the ambassador, professors, and students, confirmed that the United Nations has played the dedicated role toward peace in post-conflict countries. As the ambassador asserted, Timor-Leste is growing as a peaceful country now. Its accomplish, progress, and vision for the future, gave an audience further expectations toward the brighter future. (Risa Kato)

[IntOrg] Introductory Lecture on the Role of International Organizations in Economic, Social, Development and Humanitarian Assistance (Professor Hasegawa) (26th September 2012)

 On 26th September 2012, in his introductory lecture on international organizations in the second term, Professor Hasegawa spoke first about the functional growth of the international organizations’ roles in economic, social, development and humanitarian affairs. He delineated the functional roles played by such organizations as ITU, ILO, UNEP and UNHCHR in fulfilling specific needs of the international community in telecommunication, labor standards, environmental and human rights. He also explained the special status and roles of IAEA and UN OCHA. IAEA is the organization that promotes peaceful use of atomic energy and carries out measures that prevent military application of such energy. IAEA has a unique methodology for election of its 35 Board Member States. Thirteen members are designated by the previous and 22 are elected on a geographical basis. Council Professor Hasegawa mentioned that UN OCHA is the central office that coordinates the activities of UN agencies and international NGOs in support of the victims of natural disaster and conflicts. The important roles are promotion of consistency and effectiveness. Secondly, Professor Hasegawa explained about a series of United Nations reform initiatives taken by then Secretary-General Kofi Anna in 1997 and by the General Assembly in 2005. He also mentioned the Delivering as One proposal made by a High Level Panel in 2006. (Daiki Kawabe)

[Global Governance] Realism, Liberalism and Other Key Theoretical Concepts (Professor Hasegawa) (25th September 2012)

 On 25th September, 2012, Professor Hasegawa gave the students his second lecture on global governance. First, he explained a realist approach to world politics and referred to Hans Morgenthau. According to Morgenthau’s argument, sovereign states are regarded as the key actors, and they act rationally to ensure their national interests in international relations. Second, the professor expounded neo-realism and presented Kenneth Waltz’s contention that there is a structure even in the anarchic world. He indicated the weakness of international laws and the epiphenomenal character of international organizations. Third, the students gained insight into liberalism and neo-liberalism. They learned that several factors such as collective security, democratic peace, democracy promotion, integration between states and interdependence play a crucial role in the theory of liberalism. In addition, it’s worth mentioning the fact that the professor emphasized human rights, freedom, private ownership and other norms as significant elements of liberalism in the international relations. In addition, the professor indicated four kinds of liberalism namely, commercial liberalism, republic liberalism, sociological liberalism, and liberal institutionalism, at the end of the lecture. (Minako Ishikawa)

[IntOrg] The Roles and Activities of International Organizations in Economy, Social Development and Humanitarian Aid (Professor Hasegawa) (19th September 2012)

 On 19th September 2012, Professor Hasegawa gave a lecture on the roles and activities of international organizations in economy, social development and humanitarian aid. First, he returned the students their previous term exam results and provided them with explanations. Some students read their own answers on essay questions to the class. Second, he explained the class plan for the fall semester. He then continued to explain the relations of international organizations and 11 funds and programs established by the General Assembly and 15 UN Specialized Agencies that reported to the Economic and Social Council. He categorized them in term of their origins, functions and roles. He noted the political factors that influenced the conduct of international organizations. (Yuko Honda)

[Global Governance] Introduction to Global Governance – Theories and Concepts (Professor Hasegawa) (18th September 2012)

 On 18th September, 2012, Professor Hasegawa started his course on global governance with an explanation of its objective, schedule, grading method and reference books. He expected the students to be able to explain and discuss in English various theories and concepts of global governance by the end of the course in January 2013. Professor Hasegawa then identified four types of the globalization taking place in security, economic, environmental, and social/cultural spheres. Moreover, he explained the significance of global governance in the worlds of both Westphalia and post-Westphalia order. He referred to a definition given by the Commission on Global Governance and nine new global threats identified by the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change in its report A more secure world: Our shared responsibility published in December 2004. Finally, he introduced realism and discussed its relevance to global governance. He said he would introduce and examine later the relevance of other theories of international relations and global governance such neo-realism, liberalism, neo-liberalism, functionalism, social-constructivism, and critical theories. (Yasuki Uchiyama)

[IntOrg] End-of-Semester Lecture (Professor Hasegawa) (11th July 2012)

 On 11th July 2012, in his the end-of-semester lecture, Professor Hasegawa reviewed first the changing roles of international organizations.Then he introduced the theories of Functionalism and Neo-Functionalism developed by David Mitrany and Ernst Haas respectively. Second he reviewed the birth and growth of international organization. He explained the causes for and lessons learned from the collapse of the League of Nation. Professor Hasegawa then presented a practical overview of the key issues arising in the relationship between international law and national law. Most of the countries accorded the highest authority to their national constitutions and tried to accommodate international treaties into their domestic legal system once their legislatures have ratified them. Professor Hasegawa explained the differences in how respective countries have dealt with the international legal agreements. In case of Japan, its constitution in article 98 stipulates the following: (1) this Constitution shall be the supreme law of the nation and no law, ordinance, imperial rescript or other act of government or part thereof, contrary to the provisions hereof, shall have legal force or validity; (2) the treaties concluded by Japan and established laws of nations shall be faithfully observed. Finally professor Hasegawa explained the need for the Japanese to play a more active role in international organizations. (Yuhi Kawase)

[IntOrg] Changing Roles of NATO (Director Mr. Yoshizaki) (4th July 2012)

 On 4th July 2012, Mr. Tomonori Yoshizaki, Director of the Security Studies Department of the National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS) of the Ministry of Defense, delivered a lecture on the evolving roles of international organizations from the viewpoint of collective security. First, he explained the collective security mechanism and three criteria of effective collective security, namely certainly, utility and inclusivity. Secondly, he provided a detailed explanation about the origin, growth and transformation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). As its mission goal, NATO started with the collective defense of the North Atlantic region during the Cold War. It then transformed itself with the expansion of its membership from 12 to 28 countries many of which are from the Eastern Europe and with the addition of providing security to not only its members but also countries suffering from humanitarian and other crisis. Professor Yoshizaki noted in summary that NATO had acquired a strategic nature in its crisis management by undertaking military interventions of coercive diplomacy and adopting a comprehensive approach aimed at protecting civilians in crisis, stabilization and security sector reform. The areas and countries in which NATO has undertaken military operations included Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Libya. Professor Yoshizaki also explained the difference between Libyan and Syrian situations and the implications of the establishment of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). (Yuko Honda)

[Diplomacy] Acting Ambassador and Minister Plenipotentiary of The Republic of Cameroon in Tokyo had a Dialogue with Hosei Students (3rd July 2012)

 On 3rd July 2012, Dr. Appolinaire Essomba, Acting Ambassador and Minister Plenipotentiary of The Republic of Cameroon in Tokyo, gave a lecture about the Republic of Cameroon to students of Hosei University. First of all, Dr. Essomba mentioned that there are many people in Cameroon each with different religious, racial and ethnic background. Although they live under different circumstances, they live in harmony and peace in Cameroon. He also said that Cameroon tries to cooperate with other international countries. When Cameroon had a territorial dispute with Nigeria, Cameroon managed to solve this problem in a peaceful way. They did not resort to an armed conflict. At last, Dr. Essomba said, it is more important rather to cooperate with other countries than to solve problems by force in today’s global society. (Mai Uchida)

[Diplomacy] The World Bank in the Multi-Polar Economy (Mr. Kazushige Taniguchi, Special Representative from Japan for The World Bank) (19th June 2012)

 On June 19th 2012, Mr. Kazushige Taniguchi, Special Representative from Japan for The World Bank visited Hosei University and delivered a lecture on The World Bank in The Multi-Polar Economy. First, he insisted on the Developing Countries’ Rising Role and background of developing countries. Although developing countries are playing a key role in the global growth, those countries still have some issues. For example, high percentage of population without access to electricity, excessive numbers of deaths of female population and children under the age of five and high emission of CO2. Second, he made statements on Japanese economy and population. Total Population of Japan has been continuously decreasing since 2005, the year which the peak of the Japanese population was at and GDP of Japan is not growing after the collapse of Japan’s economic bubble. Finally, Mr. Taniguch explained general description of The World Bank. He said that The World Bank is the largest international development financial institution in the world and provides long-term development assistance to developing countries by cooperating with The International Monetary Fund (IMF) in comparing countries. He also explained about “World Bank/International Monetary Fund Annual Meetings” that is to be held in Japan this year. (Minako Ishikawa)

[Diplomacy] Liberalism and International Political Economy (Professor Hasegawa) (12th June 2012)

 On 12th June 2012, Professor Hasegawa delivered a lecture on liberalism and international political economy. Adam Smith claimed that wealth of nation increases if economic activities are left to the invisible hand. David Ricardo said that the theory of comparative advantage explains the benefit of free trade. They insisted that a government should leave men and their activities alone and not to regulate them. Liberalism has three variations. It is market, institutional and republican liberalism. Interdependence makes nation states to seek stability and peace while international organizations set norms and rules to enable states to cooperate. Secondly, Professor Hasegawa explained the Neo-liberalism. The market should function without government intervention. Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan are the ones who carried this out. By various systems such as GATT or WTO, the doctrine advocating global free market gained strength. Then John Williamson made the Washington consensus which called for restructuring, deregulation, tax reform, tariff abolition, free capital movement, etc. Thirdly, Professor Hasegawa explained the implications of financial crises that took place during the last two decades The Asian Financial Crisis started in Thailand and spread to Indonesia, South Korea and other parts of Asia and Russia in late 1990s. This was a sudden loss of confidence in national currencies of these countries. The world financial crisis that continues up to today began by the extension of excess subprime loans in 2007. Finally, he explained the nature and extent of the current European sovereign debt crisis. Many European countries are suffering from enormous debts from huge public expenditure and capital shortage in banks. The amount of public expenditures has been kept relatively low in comparison with other advanced countries. The number of public servants in Japan is less than almost all other industrialized countries of Europe and North America. Japanese banks which had most serious problem in the 1990s now have low loan deposit ratios and stronger a capital liquidity position than European banks. But, the level of Japan`s government and public sector debt is excessively high at about twice the amount of Japan’s gross domestic product. The public debt has to be curtailed lest it would eventually impact the national solvency. (Daiki Kawabe)

[IntOrg] Noblemaire and Flemming Principles Governing Working Conditions UN Employees (Professor Hasegawa) (6th June 2012)

 On 6th June 2012, Professor Hasegawa lectured on two principles that governed the conditions of international civil servants working in the UN common system. The Noblemaire Principle set a salary scale of UN staff based on the highest paid national civil service and that the US federal civil service had been used as the comparator civil service. The second principle called the Flemming Principle stipulated that local staff of the UN system should be paid “best prevailing local rates” and according to “best prevailing local conditions.” Professor Hasegawa then explained in details the salaries and allowances of the UN’s the terms of employment. The salaries consisted of basically professional and general service. Their levels are decided on the competence and experience. The amount of salary is adjusted on the location of staff assignment post. UN staff also benefitted from education, dependency and other grants as well as annual, sick, maternity and other leaves. Professor Hasegawa analyzed the implications of UN staff benefits and allowances in terms of wider doctrines such as liberal and social democracy. Finally, he asked the students about their views on the applications of the Noblemaire and Flemming principles, which the students found reasonable and attractive particularly for female workers. The students were then given five minutes to write down their views. (Yasuki Uchiyama)

[Diplomacy] The international frameworks and politics of Japan in the field of reduction and nonproliferation of arms (Ms. Keiko Yanai) (5th June 2012)

 On June 5th 2012, Ms. Keiko Yanai who is the Senior Coordinator, Non-Proliferation, Science and Nuclear Energy Division, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and Science Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs lecture on the non-proliferation politics. First, she talked about means of arms reduction and nonproliferation, and explained that they are needed for three reasons; the military security, humanitarianism and the economical development. Also, she referred to the present condition of nuclear states in the world, the general outline of NPT and rules of IAEA and Japanese policies on arms reduction and nonproliferation. Next, she talked about termination attempt on the use of CCM as a case-study for international struggle for arms reduction and nonproliferation. Then, she referred to the UN’s process on reduction and nonproliferation and noted that the diplomacy is to adjust the profits and national interests states have to promote. Finally, she argued that the cooperation with a civil society is required for nations to encourage the reduction and non proliferation. (Sayaka Yatabe)

[IntOrg] International Public Service System (Professor Hasegawa) (30th May 2012)

 On 30th May 2012, Professor Hasegawa spoke on the international civil service system centered the United Nations common system. First, he explained how the international civil service emerged with the establishment of the League of Nations. The system was designed to enable international civil servants to maintain their highest standard, independence and impartiality. The Noblemaire Principle was established to provide the best working conditions and compensations to recruit most qualified personnel. Secondly, he explained the structure of United Nations secretariat consisting of the Secretary-General and his staff, including seven different kinds of contracts given to staff and personnel such as regular staff and technical cooperation personnel, etc. He noted dramatic increase in the ratio of women in staff composition as a result of gender equality policy adopted in the 1990’s. Finally, Professor Hasegawa talked about the recruitment criteria particularly competencies, academic qualification, professional expertise and proficiency in working languages. English has become the common language for use in most of the international organizations while French or Spanish is used as the second language.(Daiki Kawabe)

[Diplomacy] Japanese UN diplomacy on human rights (Mr. Akio Miyajima) (29th May 2012)

 On May 29th, 2012, Mr. Akio Miyajima, Deputy Director-General, Foreign Policy Bureau of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs visited our University and gave a lecture in the Diplomacy class on Japanese UN diplomacy on human rights. First, he outlined basic concept of human rights and shared the class with recent news reports and focused on the history of human rights, important advancements and setbacks including genocides, after the WWII. Second, he explained on UN’s effort on human rights, its achievements as well as limits. He cited important UN agreements including UN Charter and World Declaration on human rights. He also talked about the new concept of “Responsibility to Protect.(R2P)”When human rights of civilians are not by their government, who should protect them? What is the responsibility of international community? Finally, he explained on Japanese diplomacy on human right and emphasized that Japan basically relies on “dialogue and cooperation”approach and has employed “human security” as important implementing perspective. He talked about efforts on UN human rights resolution. He distributed copy of Statement by Mr.Yamane, Senior Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs at Human Rights Council High-level segment in Geneva which highlighted Japanese efforts on human rights both at international level and at home. (Risa Kato)

[IntOrg] Financial Basis and Resource in International Organizations (Ms. Akari Kano) (23rd May 2012)

 Today, Ms. Akari Kano gave students a lecture about the financial basis and resource in international organizations. The UN budget is determined in accordance to the principle of equal sovereignty. Member nations pursue their own interests, so the budget is said to have a political aspect. The UN has been operating on a smaller budget than generally believed. Recently, the UN came to deal with non-traditional security issues, so the budget has been increasing. There are some committees in the UN related to the budget, and they support the General Assembly. Financial resources of the UN are various. Commonly known are the expenses shared by member states of which Japan is the second largest. A share of expenses will be assessed by a certain equation, and this has been in line with world affairs. The UN is faced with financial difficulties because member nations do not pay their share of expenses. The US is falling behind payments totaling four hundred million. There are various reasons why member nations do not pay their share of expenses. Introducing international solidarity tax may be mentioned as a means to solve this matter. Japan has played an important role in the UN finance. However, Japan should not only make a financial contribution, but should also take leadership in terms of other areas. (Moe Kurisu)

[Diplomacy] The United Nations’ role on diplomacy (Mr. Yasushi Akashi, Former Under-Secretary-General of the UN) (22th May 2012)

 On May, 22, 2012, Mr. Akashi, former Undersecretary-General of the United Nations, visited Hosei University and gave a lecture on the United Nations in relation to its current challenges and interventions. Though the UN is carrying out on an intervention in Syria, – through ex-Secretary-General Kofi Anann’s mediation and its truce-monitoring mission, anti-government groups are claiming that current intervention by the UN is insufficient and calling for further UN involvement in Syria. But it is impossible to answer such a call. There are two reasons why the UN is unable to do so. First, the system of the Security Council. The existence of veto, held by five permanent members, is a cause of difficulty in decision making. This prerogative for the five is important in keeping powerful nations engaged in the UN. Second the interest of each member state that has a strong influence on the UN and its decision making. The UN is in some dilemma, having learned from failures in intervention in the past. A new notion was proclaimed in the Outcome Document adopted in 2005 as “the responsibility to protect”. At present, the UN is in a major transition from absolute state sovereignty to the implementation of trans-national human rights. The system of the Security Council and the divergent state interests prevent the UN from living up to the high expectation of the UN charter. On the other hand, member states can reach agreement when find a mutual interest to do so. So the key for greater efficiency of the UN is for the member states explore and reach more compromises in their struggle for interest harmonization, in order to better manage the UN. (Yuka Narikawa)

[IntOrg] UN Security Council Reform (Mr.Umid and Professor Hasegawa) (16th May 2012)

 On 16th May 2012, Mr. Makhmudov Umid, a graduate student from Hosei University, made a presentation on the implications of the Security Council reform. One of the reasons why the Security Council needs reform is that the number of permanent members and non-permanent members are not sufficient to reflect the present condition of the world. Japan has attempted to be a permanent member along with India, Brazil and Germany. The failure of UN members to reach a consensus is their preoccupation with their national interests. According to Mr. Umid, Japan has diplomatic disputes with China, Russia, South Korea and so on. The Japanese tasks for the future are to take a leadership on the world stage, to resolve the disputes with the permanent members and to actively grapple with the reform of the Security Council.

 Professor Hasegawa then explained in detail the reform process which started in September 2003 when Kofi Atta Annan, the Secretary-General of the UN at the time, proposed the establishment of a High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. Since its establishment in November, the Panel addressed three questions: (1) “what is the new threat that the international society faces?” (2) “what can be taken as a group against the new threats?” and (3) “how should the structure of the UN be reformed?” With regard to the Security Council, the Panel considered imperative to increase its effectiveness and credibility by bringing into the Security Council those countries that contribute most in terms of decision making and resources. The Secretary-General reflecting the recommendations of the Panel then presented in his report, “In Larger Freedom”, two Models A and B. Professor Hasegawa also explained other suggestions and proposals made by Group of Four, Consensus Group, African Union, the United States and the LDCs. Intensive and extensive negotiations took place in 2005 but due to the lack of a promising prospect for adoption of any of the proposal, no voting took place on them and the Security Council reform was abandoned temporarily. Professor Hasegawa noted that the Secretary-General’s proposal reflected the rationale for a more effective way to manage the international security, while the member states pursued primarily their immediate national interest. The Westphalia world of anarchy still prevailed and the era of effective global governance was yet to come. (Yui Narikawa)

[IntOrg] The Function of International Labor Organization as an international organization (Professor Yozo Yokota) (9th May 2012)

 On 9th May 2012, Professor Yozo Yokota visited Hosei Universiy and delivered a lecture on International Labour Organisation as a unique international organization. First, he explained the history, role and importance of the International Labor Organization (ILO). Second, he noted the tripartite system of representation and decision making, the role for international standards setting and the supervisory function as the key roles played by ILO. Finally, Professor Yokota said that the ILO was a model of other International organizations. However, he also mentioned that it was required to reflect the changes taking place in its works. (Minako Ishikawa)

[Diplomacy] Ambassador of Ireland Holds Dialogue with Hosei Students (8th May 2012)

 In this opening speech, Professor Katsuya Hirose, Dean, Faculty of Law welcomed the Ireland ambassador. In delivering his keynote speech, Ambassador John Neary provided first basic information on historical developments particularly those that took place after independence in 1922. Emphasizing its foreign policy of neutrality, he explained the Irish foreign policy centering the United Nations and participated in UN peacekeeping operations. Ireland had a strong commitment to a rules-based international order. In spite of its challenging economic situation at home, Ireland continues to spend about 0.52 percent of its gross domestic product for ODA activities with a particular focus on newly independent countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The Irish ambassador also explained the relationship between Ireland and Great Britain and mentioned the successful outcome of diplomatic negotiations between the two countries concerning Northern Ireland. In addition, he mentioned Ireland’s economic, social and cultural ties with Japan. Following the Ambassador’s presentation, Professor Mikiko Eto, Head of Department of Political Science, commented Ireland’s high status in human development index (HDI), democracy ranking and freedom index. Finally, Hosei University students asked questions to Ambassador concerning the neutrality policy, causes of conflict in Northern Ireland, ODA and other issues. (Yuko Honda)

[IntOrg] New International Organizational Structure in Post-W.W.II (Professor Hasegawa) (25th April 2012)

 On 25th April 2012, Professor Hasegawa gave a lecture on the causes of First and Second World War and the changes incorporated in the principles, purposes and role of the international organizations. Firstly he explained that the failure of the collective security system adopted by the League of Nations is the lesson from its collapse. He then referred to various chapters and articles of the United Nations Charter. He also referred to several international conferences that prepared the establishment of the United Nations system and the Bretton Woods institutions. Professor Hasegawa explained three reforms adopted in 2005, such as the upgrading of the Human Rights Council and the International Peacebuilding Commission. He also mentioned key contributions made by Secretary-General particularly Boutros-Ghali and Kofi Annan under whom Professor Hasegawa served in peacekeeping missions from early 1990’s to 2006. (Sayaka Yatabe)

[Diplomacy] Japanese Security Policy and Public Diplomacy (Mr. Shigeki Takizaki) (24th April 2012)

 On 24th April 2012, Mr, Shigeki Takizaki, Director, Personnel Division in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, made a lecture about “Japanese Security Policy” and “Public Diplomacy”. First, he explained about the “Japanese security policy”. After explaining what is national security and the security environment of Japan which has remained unstable even after the Cold War finished, he demonstrated Japan’s three-layered security policy. The first one is to protect itself by its own efforts such as the Self-Defense Forces. The second is to strengthen Japan-US security arrangements. The last one is to contribute to global security by sending SDF to UN peacekeeping operations, working active at various international organizations such as the UN etc. Second, he explained about “public diplomacy”. It is diplomacy which works directly upon individuals and the public opinion abroad to increase a national interest and to achieve diplomatic purpose. It is getting more important because the public opinion today mobilizes a government especially in democratic society. However, it is difficult for the public diplomacy to achieve something beyond real diplomatic policy or what a country really is. Finally he showed Japanese public diplomacy to the US through his experiences such as JET(Japan Exchange and Teaching) programme and the centennial of gift of cherry trees from Japan to US. (Yui Narikawa)

[IntOrg] Implications of international laws and treaties to sovereign nation states and the collapse of the League of Nations (Professor Hasegawa) (18th April 2012)

 On 18th April 2012, Professor Hasegawa made a detailed comparative analysis of the legal implications of international laws and treaties for sovereign nation states. He explained the legal status of an international organization and the relationship between an international law and a national law and noted the superior position given to either national or international laws by respective countries. In his lecture today, Professor Hasegawa also identified the three causal factors for the birth of an international organization. Particularly, he indicated that the desire to avoid any recurrence of war was one of the main reasons to create an international organization. He then explained how the League of Nations was established and identified lessons learned from its collapse. (Risa Kato)

[Diplomacy] Comprehensive Foreign Policy and Diplomacy – theory and practice (Professor Hasegawa) (April 17th 2012)

 On April 17th 2012, Professor Hasegawa lectured on Diplomacy theory and practice. First, he explained the difference between nation country and state. It is important to understand Sovereignty and Control. Second, he lectured in the diplomatic method. He referred to the origin of diplomacy and development. As an example, he used the thoughts of Thomas Hobbes, Rousseau and Carl Schmitt. Third, he explained modern diplomacy. He explained Mixture of ideology. He said that if mixture of ideology occurs, double diplomacy will break out. After that, he showed us video clip about the World War II in order to discuss why Japan started the Pacific War. Finally, he compared the main point of realism which faces the problem of Dilemma of a security with Neo-realism which assumes objective society. (Yuhi Kawase)

[IntOrg] International Organizations -Their Birth and Growth- (Professor Hasegawa)(11th April 2012)

 On 11th April 2012, in his first lecture on international organizations, Professor Hasegawa first explained the purpose of the class and its annual plan. He emphasized the importance of being consciously aware of how the birth and roles of the international organizations are viewed from different perspectives. First, he explained about the definitions of “International Organizations” which consists of a narrow sense and a wide sense. He examined the causes and structures of various international organizations including inter-governmental organizations (IGO), civil society organizations (CSO) and non-governmental organizations (NGO). Secondly, he explained the roles and functions of these international organizations. Thirdly, he provided an overview of how the international organizations increased their number and roles in the Westphalia world that has been dominated by sovereign nation states as main actors. In doing so, he referred to differences that existed about “nation” or “country” and “states”. (Misa Komine)

[Diplomacy] Comprehensive Foreign Policy and Diplomacy – Theory and Practice (Professor Hasegawa) (April 10th, 2012)

 On April 10th, 2012, Professor Hasegawa started his lecture on Sogo Gaiko Koza (Comprehensive Foreign Policy and Diplomacy). First, he explained the synthesis on foreign policy, paradigm shift and method of evaluation. He explained how any particular paradigm affects the perception of events by people. As an example, he referred to the changing views of Japanese people about the launchings of ballistic missiles by North Korea over the past several years. Second, he explained various forms of diplomacy practiced by nation states, their governments and citizens and the difference in how diplomacy has been conducted by authoritarian and democratic countries. He referred to the problem created for the Government of Japan by the unintended outcome of the visit of former Prime Minister Hatoyama to Iran. In addition, he explained the importance of knowing the partners and adversaries as well as oneself in diplomacy and negotiations as explained by Sun Tzu and Mitoji Yabunaka. Third, he explained the implications of the Westphalia order and sovereignty of state. Finally, he mentioned the main elements of theories of realism, liberalism and constructivism in explaining international relations, including the term of “security dilemma”. (Yasuki Uchiyama)

[Diplomacy] 2012年1月18日 The all-inclusive lecture by Professor Hasegawa

On 18th January 2012, Professor Hasegawa delivered the all-inclusive lecture.
First of all, he reviewed diplomatic theory, and gave “national security” and “national interest” as two principal conditions for the continued survival and prosperity of nations. He informed in detail the roles of diplomacy and historical development in turn. Then he explained from ancient and the Middle Ages’ ideas which Sun Tzu and Francois de Callieres had, to the Westphalia structure. Using as an example the withdrawal of U.S. armed forces from Okinawa, he compared the claims of realist and those who advocate the interest of resident citizens in Okinawa. Moreover, he referred to the continued relevance of realism and liberalism in understanding the diplomacy of 21st century. Then looking back the lectures of guest speakers who came to this class, he explained Constructivism and Functionalism at last.(Mai Kato)

[Diplomacy] 2012年1月11日 東アジアとヨーロッパにおける共同体の創設と意義

On January 11, Professor Hasegawa delivered a lecture about regional diplomacy. First of all, he explained the birth and development of ASEAN, particularly AFTA, CEPT and EPA, and mentioned the extent of economic integration of ASEAN. He then pointed out the reasons why the process of regional integration has not proceeded as rapidly as in Europe. He explained that ASEAN moved forward with forming ASEAN plus One, ASEAN plus Three and East Asian Community, encompassing not only the economic but also the political, social and security cooperation of its member states as well as other countries of the region. The regional framework was expanded to include the United States and Russia in the forum of East Asian Summit. Finally, he made a comparison of Asian and European experiences and explained the reasons for the extent of integrations that has taken place in East Asia and Europe. (Yuka Hirakawa)

[IntOrg]2012年1月10日 国際機構論 期末試験

 On 10th January 2012, the final-term examination was held in the class of the international organization. The examination was made up of the true-false questions and the essay questions. In this test, we recognized again our understanding and knowledge from the lecture by Professor Hasegawa and the guest-speakers. Moreover, we wrote down our opinions how the United Nations should reform in order to work more effectively. (Saki Sakamoto)

[Diplomacy]2011年12月21日 政治経済外交-貿易と経済統合の視点から- (長谷川祐弘教授)

 On 20th November 2011, Professor Hasegawa lectured on the diplomacy centered political economy, in terms of particularly the meaning of trade and economic integration. Firstly, he explained the theories of international political economy, and indicated the rise of neo-liberal theory culminating in the Washington Consensus that influenced the policies of advanced as well as developing countries. Then, He mentioned the implications of FTA and EPA as well as the transition from GATT to WTO. He also noticed the status and the coming challenges of the international economy on regional economic integration. (Keiki Takemasa)

[IntOrg]2011年12月20日 総括講義 -“Delivering As One”に向けて- (長谷川祐弘教授)

 On December 20, Professor Hasegawa recapitulated some of the salient points that emerged during various lectures delivered this year. First of all, he asked a basic question: “What are the reasons that nation states create international organizations that would restrict their independence and sovereignty?” He then reviewed the historical context in which international organizations have been created and also the changing relationships between international organizations and sovereign states. He also mentioned the changes that took place in the roles, policies and structures of international organizations since the World War I and II. Next, he explained how the United Nations and other international organizationshave been brought into the concept of “Delivering As One” to increase its effectiveness through adoptionof such programming tools as CCA, UNDAF, PRSP and ISF. In his concluding remarks,Professor Hasegawa identified some of the issues that will be the key tasks ofconcern for international organizations. (Yuka Hirakawa)

[Diplomacy] Dialogue with an Ambassador ~Switzerland’s foreign Policy~

The fifth dialogue with an ambassador was held in Sotobori 307 on 14 December 2011 with H.E. Mr. Urs Bucher Ambassador of Switzerland in Japan.
Firstly, welcome remarks made by Professor Mitsutoshi Somura, Dean/Department of Global and Interdisciplinary Studies of Hosei University. After that Ambassador explained how Switzerland has been a considerable country in Global World, regardless of their small territory. In the dialogue, the ambassador emphasized their specialties; neutrality, direct democracy and soft power.
 After the presentation, there was question- and- answer period and a lot of students asked Ambassador many questions.
(Lena Kondo)

[Diplomacy]2011年12月7日 国連PKOと日本(内閣府国際平和協力本部事務局長 羽田浩二様)

(平林 聡一朗)

[Diplomacy] 2011年11月30日 環境外交~気候変動交渉~ (国連大学高等研究所客員教授 功刀達朗様)

 On 30 November, Visiting Professor of the UN University Institute of Advanced Studies delivered a lecture. First, he said that unlike traditional diplomacy, multilateral diplomacy on global issues is a sophisticated pursuit of common interests of the entire humanity centering around the UN. Second, he reviewed the evolution of environmental governance since the 1992 Earth Summit by citing important regimes for international cooperation, such as those on climate change, biodiversity, desertification and marshlands. Third, he explained that global warming is one of the most serious issues of this century, which needs to be stabilized before too late. Noting that all countries, whether developed or developing, “share common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities,” he said that unless this basic principle is agreed at the current negotiations in Durban on climate change, an extension of the Kyoto Protocol would be ineffective and meaningless, as Japan, Russia and Canada rightly assert. (Yuna Kitamura)


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